Anti-emetic prophylaxis with oral tropisetron and/or dexamethasone.
ABSTRACT The corticosteroid dexamethasone and the serotonine3 -antagonist tropisetron are both effective drugs for the prophylaxis of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) when given intravenously. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the oral use of both drugs as part of a routine oral premedication and to compare their single and combined effectiveness.
In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, 320 inpatients with a moderate-high risk of PONV (> or = 40% according to two validated risk scores) received an oral premedication 1-2 h pre-operatively with placebo, a fixed dose of tropisetron 5 mg, dexamethasone 8 mg, or a combination of both drugs. A standardized general anaesthesia was performed, including benzodiazepine premedication, propofol, rocuronium, desflurane in air/O2, fentanyl or sufentanil followed by a continuous infusion of remifentanil. Post-operative analgesia and anti-emetic rescue medication were standardized. The main outcome measures were the severity of PONV within the first 24 h (rated by a standardized scoring algorithm). The incidence of PONV was used as the secondary outcome.
Data from 310 patients were analyzed. The mean severity score in the placebo-, tropisetron-, dexamethasone- and the combined-groups was 1.37, 0.8, 0.8 and 0.38, respectively. The incidence of PONV of any severity was 59.2%, 37.5%, 40% and 22.8%, respectively. The reduction of the incidence and the severity of PONV were statistically significant with all three interventions. Results from additional analyses suggested that both drugs were equally effective and that there was a simple additive effect of tropisetron and dexamethasone compared with placebo.
Oral tropisetron and dexamethasone were both equally effective in reducing the severity and incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting. The latter could be reduced by approximately 35% in a population of moderate-high risk for PONV. Both drugs had an additive effect. However, even in the combination group there still remained an unacceptably high incidence of PONV of more than 20%. This highlighted the need for a multimodal anti-emetic approach in high-risk patients and the importance of treatment of PONV.
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ABSTRACT: Nausea and vomiting are common postoperative complications with incidence of 20-80% depends on the surgery type, anesthetic drugs, age, sex, etc. This complication may lead to patient discomfort, intraocular, and intracerebral pressures increase, sutures rupture, esophageal injury, and rarely death. Many studies reported that midazolam and dexamethasone alone can decrease postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), but their combination has never been studied yet. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of midazolam and midazolam-dexamethasone on PONV after middle ear surgery. 66 ASA I and II patients aged 15-65 year scheduled for elective middle ear surgery under general anesthesia randomly divided into two groups. Immediately after induction of the anesthesia group one (M) received midazolam 0.075 mg/kg and group two (M+D) received combination of midazolam (0.075 mg/kg) plus dexamethasone (0.05 mg/kg). Then the severity of nausea was measured by visual analog scales 0-10 (VAS) in recovery room at 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. Metoclopramid (0.1 mg/kg) was administrated I.V. slowly if nausea score was above 3 or patient had vomiting. The postoperative need for antiemetics and the duration of stay in recovery room were recorded. Values of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. There were no significant differences in age, gender, and weight between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the mean nausea scores between two groups except after 12 h postoperatively (1.39 ± 3.19 in M group vs. 0.42 ± 1.71 in M+D group). The mean vomiting frequency was significantly less in midazolam-dexamethasone group in the recovery room (0.9 ± 0.29 vs. 0 ± 0) and at 6-12 h (1.09 ± 2.41 vs. 0.3 ± 0.8), and 12-24 h (0.42 ± 1.32 vs. 0.03 ± 0.17) postoperatively. During the first 24 h postoperatively, the metoclopramid consumption was significantly less in combination therapy (6.48 ± 9.54) than in the midazolam group (12.9 ± 23.44) (Value<0.5). The combination of midazolam-dexametazone is more effective than midazolam alone in prevention of postoperative vomiting after middle ear surgery. Therefore, we recommend combination therapy for patients who are prone to PONV.05/2012; 1:9. DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.96052
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ABSTRACT: Poly[silylene-(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1,4-phenylene]s have been prepared via Cu(I)-catalyzed Azides and Alkynes Cycloaddition (CuAAC) polymerization from diethynylsilanes and 1,4-diazidobenzene. The organosilicon units contribute to electronic transitions between the π-conjugated units, as well as improving the solubility and processability of the polymers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) have been utilized to confirm the structure of these polymers. The UV–visible spectra of polymers show almost identical absorption at around 270 nm. The fluorescence emission in CHCl3 solutions were observed as similar broad band in visible blue region (ca. 430 nm). The quantum yields (Φ) were ranged from 0.19 to 0.37. The optical properties support the σ–π conjugation of the silylene and aromatic heterocycle groups, and the substituents on silicon atoms have negligible effect on the photoproperties.Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 05/2011; 696(9):1874-1878. DOI:10.1016/j.jorganchem.2011.02.028 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The serotonin type 3 receptor antagonists (5-HT(3) antagonists) ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron, and dolasetron are potential prophylactic agents for patients with mild to moderate risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). A few trials have been conducted to compare the efficacy among 2 to 3 of these 4 agents. However, the comparative efficacy of all four 5-HT(3) antagonists has not yet been quantitatively investigated. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the 5-HT(3) antagonists--ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron, and dolasetron-differ in efficacy when used for the prevention of PONV. PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled, double-blind studies measuring efficacy in terms of PONV prophylaxis. A Bayesian meta-analysis was conducted using published studies of 5-HT(3) antagonists for PONV prophylaxis. The odds of patients with no PONV and postoperative vomiting (POV) within each study arm 24 hours after surgery were the primary indices of drug efficacy. Data were extracted and analyzed via indirect comparisons using random effects Bayesian models in WinBUGS version 1.4.3. A total of 85 studies were identified, representing 15,269 patients. The results indicate that granisetron was significantly better than ondansetron (odds ratio [OR] = 1.53 [95% credible interval (CI), 1.15-2.00]) and dolasetron (OR = 1.67 [95% CI, 1.12-2.38]) in preventing PONV. Four antiemetic drugs had comparable efficacy in terms of preventing POV: granisetron showed similar efficacy compared with ondansetron (OR = 1.49 [95% CI, 0.90-2.43]), tropisetron (OR = 1.69 [95% CI, 0.92-3.13]), and dolasetron (OR = 1.32 [95% CI, 0.71-2.38]). Ondansetron exhibited comparable efficacy compared with tropisetron (OR = 1.14 [95% CI, 0.66-1.96]) and dolasetron (OR = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.51-1.47]). Tropisetron and dolasetron were also similar in efficacy (OR = 0.78 [95% CI, 0.40-1.45]). All 5-HT(3) antagonists were statistically significantly better at preventing PONV or POV than placebo. With respect to PONV prophylaxis, granisetron was significantly better than ondansetron and dolasetron; ondansetron, tropisetron, and dolasetron exhibited similar efficacy. With respect to POV prophylaxis, ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron, and dolasetron seemed to have comparable efficacy.Clinical Therapeutics 02/2012; 34(2):282-94. DOI:10.1016/j.clinthera.2012.01.007 · 2.59 Impact Factor