Risk factors for opportunistic illnesses in children with human immunodeficiency virus in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.25). 09/2006; 160(8):778-87. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.160.8.778
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine the relationship between the use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) and the occurrence of opportunistic illnesses (OIs) among children perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
Prospective cohort study.
Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C cohort.
From September 15, 2000, to August 31, 2003, 1927 children perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus and receiving HAART were followed up. Main Exposures Age at initiating HAART, duration of HAART use, CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage, and human immunodeficiency virus 1 viral load.
Incidence rates for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention OI category B and OI category C events were calculated. The association between main exposures and OI occurrence was estimated using proportional hazards regression.
Of 1927 subjects, 226 (12.7%) developed OIs during follow-up. Incidence rates were 4.99 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval, 4.30-5.76) for first OI category B events and 1.47 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.91) for first OI category C events. Duration of HAART use was not related to OI risk. Older age (age >10 years) at HAART initiation was associated with increased risk of a first OI (hazard ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-5.00) compared with initiating HAART in children younger than 2 years. This increased risk diminished after adjusting for CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention disease category at HAART initiation. More children with OIs than without OIs had a CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage of less than 15% at HAART initiation (49.6% of children with OIs vs 23.7% of children without OIs), at enrollment (41.2% of children with OIs vs 7.7% of children without OIs), and at the end of follow-up (41.2% of children with OIs vs 8.3% of children without OIs).
Opportunistic illnesses are occurring in the pediatric human immunodeficiency virus population in the HAART era, mainly in children with persistently low CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentages. Lack of a sustained response to HAART rather than age at or duration of HAART use is predictive of OI risk.


Available from: Wayne Dankner, Jun 02, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Residents of Zambézia Province, Mozambique live from rural subsistence farming and fishing. The 2009 provincial HIV prevalence for adults 15–49 years was 12.6%, higher among women (15.3%) than men (8.9%). We reviewed clinical data to assess outcomes for HIV-infected children on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in a highly resource-limited setting. Methods We studied rates of 2-year mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU) for children <15 years of age initiating cART between June 2006–July 2011 in 10 rural districts. National guidelines define LTFU as >60 days following last-scheduled medication pickup. Kaplan-Meier estimates to compute mortality assumed non-informative censoring. Cumulative LTFU incidence calculations treated death as a competing risk. Results Of 753 children, 29.0% (95% CI: 24.5, 33.2) were confirmed dead by 2 years and 39.0% (95% CI: 34.8, 42.9) were LTFU with unknown clinical outcomes. The cohort mortality rate was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.3, 10.4) after 90 days on cART and 19.2% (95% CI: 16.0, 22.3) after 365 days. Higher hemoglobin at cART initiation was associated with being alive and on cART at 2 years (alive: 9.3 g/dL vs. dead or LTFU: 8.3–8.4 g/dL, p<0.01). Cotrimoxazole use within 90 days of ART initiation was associated with improved 2-year outcomes Treatment was initiated late (WHO stage III/IV) among 48% of the children with WHO stage recorded in their records. Marked heterogeneity in outcomes by district was noted (p<0.001). Conclusions We found poor clinical and programmatic outcomes among children taking cART in rural Mozambique. Expanded testing, early infant diagnosis, counseling/support services, case finding, and outreach are insufficiently implemented. Our quality improvement efforts seek to better link pregnancy and HIV services, expand coverage and timeliness of infant diagnosis and treatment, and increase follow-up and adherence.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110116. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110116
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present qualitative research investigating demand-side barriers to uptake of paediatric HIV services in Kenya. We explore community perceptions of services in 3 provinces where paediatric treatment is readily available but under-utilised, aiming to focus on demand-side obstacles and derive strategies for increasing uptake. We conducted focus-group discussions with openly HIV-positive parents and caregivers of children aged up to 15 years (n = 7 groups), clinic- and community-based healthworkers (n = 13 groups); and individual in-depth interviews with managers and Ministry of Health representatives (n = 6 interviews). Results revealed low community awareness of medical indications for paediatric HIV testing, alongside widespread anxieties about potential infection routes. Care-seeking delays reflect strong perceived associations between antiretroviral treatment (ART) and mortality. Despite free drugs available from the Kenyan government, costs for laboratory services, medications for opportunistic infections, transportation and nutritional needs remain major obstacles. Attitudinal barriers include fatalistic beliefs about early death for infected children and reliance on traditional healers. Stigma reduces access, especially as paediatric testing represents a “window” into parental HIV status. Apprehensive caregivers fear the lifelong nature of ART and report adherence struggles. Even when paediatric ART is relatively accessible, demand-side barriers impede uptake and must be addressed at community and facility levels.
    Children and Youth Services Review 10/2014; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.03.034
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001), anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001), malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004), hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001), monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006), dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001) and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001). The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.
    Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 11/2013; 29(11):2197-2207. DOI:10.1590/0102-311x00069213