Article

Risk Factors for Opportunistic Illnesses in Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.25). 09/2006; 160(8):778-87. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.160.8.778
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine the relationship between the use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) and the occurrence of opportunistic illnesses (OIs) among children perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
Prospective cohort study.
Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C cohort.
From September 15, 2000, to August 31, 2003, 1927 children perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus and receiving HAART were followed up. Main Exposures Age at initiating HAART, duration of HAART use, CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage, and human immunodeficiency virus 1 viral load.
Incidence rates for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention OI category B and OI category C events were calculated. The association between main exposures and OI occurrence was estimated using proportional hazards regression.
Of 1927 subjects, 226 (12.7%) developed OIs during follow-up. Incidence rates were 4.99 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval, 4.30-5.76) for first OI category B events and 1.47 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.91) for first OI category C events. Duration of HAART use was not related to OI risk. Older age (age >10 years) at HAART initiation was associated with increased risk of a first OI (hazard ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-5.00) compared with initiating HAART in children younger than 2 years. This increased risk diminished after adjusting for CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention disease category at HAART initiation. More children with OIs than without OIs had a CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage of less than 15% at HAART initiation (49.6% of children with OIs vs 23.7% of children without OIs), at enrollment (41.2% of children with OIs vs 7.7% of children without OIs), and at the end of follow-up (41.2% of children with OIs vs 8.3% of children without OIs).
Opportunistic illnesses are occurring in the pediatric human immunodeficiency virus population in the HAART era, mainly in children with persistently low CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentages. Lack of a sustained response to HAART rather than age at or duration of HAART use is predictive of OI risk.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Wayne Dankner, Jul 06, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
70 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To describe the pattern of incident illness in children after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a large public health sector programme in Lusaka, Zambia. Systematic chart review to retrospectively extract data from medical records of children (i.e. <15 years) initiating ART in the Lusaka, Zambia public sector. Incident conditions were listed separately and then grouped according to broad categories. Predictors for incident diagnoses were determined using univariate and multivariable analysis. Between May 2004 and June 2006, 1705 HIV-infected children initiated ART. Of these, 1235 (72%) had their medical records reviewed. Median age at ART initiation was 77 months and 554 (45%) were females. Eight hundred and forty-one (68%) children had an incident condition during this period, with a median time of occurrence of 64 days from ART initiation. Twenty-eight incident conditions were documented. When categorized, the most common were mucocutaneous conditions [incidence rate (IR): 70.6 per 100 child-years, 95% CI: 64.5-77.2] and upper respiratory tract infection (IR: 70.1 per 100 child-years; 95% CI: 64.0-76.7). Children with severe immunosuppression (i.e. CD4 < 10%) were more likely to develop lower respiratory tract infection (16.3%vs. 10.2%; P = 0.003) and mucocutaneous conditions (43.9% vs. 35.3%; P = 0.005) than those with CD4 > or = 10%. There is a high incidence of new illness after ART initiation, emphasizing the importance of close monitoring during this period. Early initiation of ART and use of antimicrobial prophylaxis may also help to reduce the occurrence of such co-morbidities.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 09/2009; 14(10):1190-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02360.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infected individuals is subjected to a series of opportunistic infections which are usually considered as a prognostic marker for the severity of infection as well as an indicator of immunodeficiency. The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly lessened the severity of HIV-associated oral infections although this therapeutic regimen is considered to be responsible for some of the oral lesions such as oral warts and salivary gland disorders. In addition, the beneficial effects of HAART on HIV associated oral lesions are stratified with age, with the adult population showing improvements whereas the oral lesions among children remain unchanged with this therapy. The presence of HIV-1 in the saliva, and infectivity of oral epithelial cells suggest that the oral cavity is a site of HIV pathogenesis and potential reservoir for the disease in the setting of virally suppressive HAART. Overall HIV associated oral lesions are usually due to fungal, bacterial, and viral infections as well as some of unknown etiology. This review describes the current status of HIV associated oral lesions by comparing historically available pre-HAART data. Future directions envisioned by the National Institutes of Health as well as novel avenues to be explored are also presented.
    Current HIV research 06/2007; 5(3):281-92. DOI:10.2174/157016207780636533 · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the incidence and prevalence of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected children. Children born from 1986 to 1998 were monitored until 2004 in the Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study, sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We determined the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy (before and after January 1, 1997, respectively) incidence rates of opportunistic infections among HIV-infected children and characterized the temporal decreases in percentages of CD4+ cells and the mortality rates among patients with and those without incident opportunistic infections. The overall opportunistic infection incidence declined from 14.4 to 1.1 cases per 100 patient-years; statistically significant reductions were seen in the incidence of the most common opportunistic infections, including Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (5.8 vs 0.3 cases per 100 patient-years), recurrent bacterial infections (4.7 vs 0.2 cases per 100 patient-years), extraocular cytomegalovirus infection (1.4 vs 0.1 cases per 100 patient-years), and disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection (1.3 vs 0.2 cases per 100 patient-years). Kaplan-Meier analysis of time from birth to the first opportunistic infection illustrated more-rapid acquisition of opportunistic infections by HIV-infected children born in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy era than by those born later. In the first 3 years of life, there was a faster decline in the percentage of CD4+ cells among children with opportunistic infections. The mortality rate was significantly higher among children with opportunistic infections. Reduction in the incidence of opportunistic infections and prolongation of the time to the first opportunistic infection were noted during the post-highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Children who experienced opportunistic infections had higher mortality rates than did those who did not. Younger children (<3 years) who experienced opportunistic infections had faster declines in percentages of CD4+ T cells.
    PEDIATRICS 07/2007; 120(1):100-9. DOI:10.1542/peds.2006-2052 · 5.30 Impact Factor