National survey of psychotherapy training in psychiatry, psychology, and social work. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 925-934

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 09/2006; 63(8):925-34. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.63.8.925
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Approximately 3% of the US population receives psychotherapy each year from psychiatrists, psychologists, or social workers. A modest number of psychotherapies are evidence-based therapy (EBT) in that they have been defined in manuals and found efficacious in at least 2 controlled clinical trials with random assignment that include a control condition of psychotherapy, placebo, pill, or other treatment and samples of sufficient power with well-characterized patients. Few practitioners use EBT.
To determine the amount of EBT taught in accredited training programs in psychiatry, psychology (PhD and PsyD), and social work and to note whether the training was elective or required and presented as a didactic (coursework) or clinical supervision.
A cross-sectional survey of a probability sample of all accredited training programs in psychiatry, psychology, and social work in the United States. Responders included training directors (or their designates) from 221 programs (73 in psychiatry, 63 in PhD clinical psychology, 21 in PsyD psychology, and 64 in master's-level social work). The overall response rate was 73.7%. Main Outcome Measure Requiring both a didactic and clinical supervision in an EBT.
Although programs offered electives in EBT and non-EBT, few required both a didactic and clinical supervision in EBT, and most required training was non-EBT. Psychiatry required coursework and clinical supervision in the largest percentage of EBT (28.1%). Cognitive behavioral therapy was the EBT most frequently offered and required as a didactic in all 3 disciplines. More than 90% of the psychiatry training programs were complying with the new cognitive behavior therapy requirement. The 2 disciplines with the largest number of students and emphasis on clinical training-professional clinical psychology (PsyD) and social work-had the largest percentage of programs (67.3% and 61.7%, respectively) not requiring a didactic and clinical supervision in any EBT.
There is a considerable gap between research evidence for psychotherapy and clinical training. Until the training programs in the major disciplines providing psychotherapy increase training in EBT, the gap between research evidence and clinical practice will remain.

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Available from: Helen Verdeli, Feb 01, 2014
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    • "Ironically, yet with some notable exceptions , the very institutions actively engaged in EBT research often provide limited opportunities for students to learn EBT (Bertram, Charnin, Kerns, & Long, 2014). An earlier survey found that very few graduate training programs require both didactic and clinical supervision in any EBT: psychiatry (28.1%), psychology (PhD 16.5% and PsyD 11.5%), and social work (9.8%; Weissman et al., 2006). The lack of EBT-specific educational opportunities for students contributes to a significant disparity between the approximately 20% of the population with behavioral health needs (New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, 2003) and the number of available clinicians with EBT competency (Hoge, Huey, & O'Connell, 2004; Mazade & Glover, 2007). "
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    • "Conversely, barriers to implementation include (but are not limited to) time constraints, beliefs about the use of psychosocial interventions in schools, and competing job demands (Forman, Olin, Hoagwood, Crowe, & Sake, 2009). Among the potentially malleable factors impacting EBP implementation, provider training is often highlighted as a promising means to facilitate the uptake of EBPs (e.g., Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005; Greenhalgh, Robert, MacFarlane, Bate, & Kyriakidou, 2004), partially because there are too few providers adequately trained in the use of EBPs (Kazdin, 2008; Weissman et al., 2006). Still, given the myriad of implementation barriers in schools, training alone is unlikely to produce consistent and sustained change (cf. "
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