Acceptance of pneumococcal vaccine under standing orders by race and ethnicity.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.
Journal of the National Medical Association (Impact Factor: 0.91). 08/2006; 98(7):1089-94.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess whether and how pneumococcal vaccine acceptance occurs after nurse recommendation varies by race/ethnicity.
We prospectively evaluated nurses' standing orders to assess and vaccinate high-risk patients in a general medicine practice.
Of 370 adult patients surveyed (60% nonwhite), 78 (21%) declined vaccination following nurse recommendation, and 43 (12%) persisted in declining after physician consultation. Three-hundred-twenty-seven (88%) patients accepted vaccination: 292 (79%) accepted following nurse recommendation and 35 (9%) following physician consultation. African Americans (19%) were significantly more likely to decline compared with whites (8%) and Asians (5%) (P= 0.01). Reasons for refusal included believing vaccination was unnecessary (32%), fearing shots in general (21%), fearing vaccine-induced illness (26%) and wanting more informotion regarding the vaccine (9%).
Standing orders, physicians' firm recommendations and addressing patients' vaccine-related concerns may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in vaccination.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vaccination rates for pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) and influenza vaccine are relatively low in disadvantaged urban populations. This study was designed to assess which physician and practice characteristics might explain differences in rates across physicians. PPV and influenza vaccination rates were determined for 2,021 patients aged 65 years and older receiving care from 30 physicians in 17 practices surveyed about their office systems for providing adult immunizations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were used to examine the relationships among vaccination rates, patient-level characteristics, and physician variables. Overall, the weighted PPV vaccination rate was 60.0% and varied widely across physicians (range, 11%-98%). At the patient level in HLM, patient race (P=.01) and age (P = .02), but not neighborhood income, were associated with PPV status. By linking physician survey data with PPV rates, we found the best pair of physician variables to be "reported time spent with patients for a well visit" (P = .01) and "use of enhanced immunization documentation" (P=.10). The overall influenza vaccination rate was 51.9% (range, 22%-96%). Patient race (P=.003) and age (P = .002) were associated with influenza vaccination. The pair of physician variables with the strongest association with influenza vaccination was "use of standing orders" (P <.001) and "average observed physician examination room time," regardless of visit type (P=.02). Vaccination rates vary widely in urban settings and are associated with practice characteristics such as time spent with patients and, for influenza vaccine, use of standing orders.
    The Annals of Family Medicine 11/2009; 7(6):534-41. DOI:10.1370/afm.1060 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) has been recommended for all people aged ≥65 years in the U.S. since 1983; consistent surveillance for vaccine coverage has been conducted since 1989. To assess PPSV23 vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥65 years in the U.S. The data were analyzed from the 1989, 1991, 1993-1995, and 1997-2008 National Health Interview Surveys in 2009. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses were conducted to identify factors independently associated with receiving PPSV23 in 2008. Missed opportunities for vaccination were also assessed. Among people aged ≥65 years, PPSV23 coverage increased from 14.1% in 1989 to 60.1% in 2008. On average, vaccination coverage increased by 3.5% annually during 1989-2000 compared with 1.0% during 2001-2008. In 2008, coverage was significantly higher for people aged 75-84 years (68.8%), and ≥85 years (69.0%) compared with those aged 65-74 years (52.5%). Coverage was significantly higher for non-Hispanic whites (64.3%) compared with non-Hispanic blacks (44.6%) and those with Hispanic ethnicity (36.4%). Among people aged ≥65 years who reported never receiving PPSV23, 90.6% reported at least one missed opportunity. Characteristics independently associated with increased likelihood of ever receiving PPSV23 were higher age, female, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, not employed, higher education level, more physician visits in the past year, hospitalized within past year, having Medicare and other supplemental health insurance, and having a chronic medical condition. National PPSV23 coverage among people aged ≥65 years increased substantially until 2000, but the rate of increase was smaller after 2000 and coverage in 2008 remained well below the national Healthy People 2010 target of 90%. Increased efforts to avoid missed opportunities for pneumococcal vaccination are needed, especially among minority populations.
    American journal of preventive medicine 10/2010; 39(4):287-95. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.06.004 · 4.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of physician recommendation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in early (ages 11-12), middle (13-17), and late adolescent/young adult (18-26) female patients by physician specialty, and to identify factors associated with recommendation in early adolescents. A 38-item survey was conducted April 2009 through August 2009 among a nationally representative random sample of 1538 Family Physicians, Pediatricians, and Obstetricians and Gynecologists obtained from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. A multivariable model was used to assess factors associated with frequency of physician recommendation of HPV vaccination ("always"=76-100% of the time vs. other=0-75%) within the past 12 months. Completed surveys were received from 1013 physicians, including 500 Family Physicians, 287 Pediatricians, and 226 Obstetricians and Gynecologists (response rate=67.8%). Across the specialties, 34.6% of physicians reported they "always" recommend the HPV vaccine to early adolescents, 52.7% to middle adolescents, and 50.2% to late adolescents/young adults. The likelihood of "always" recommending the HPV vaccine was highest among Pediatricians for all age groups (P<0.001). Physician specialty, age, ethnicity, reported barriers, and Vaccines for Children provider status were significantly associated with "always" recommending HPV vaccination for early adolescents. Findings suggest missed clinical opportunities for HPV vaccination, and perceived barriers to vaccination may drive decisions about recommendation. Results suggest the need for age and specialty targeted practice and policy level interventions to increase HPV vaccination among US females.
    Vaccine 09/2011; 29(47):8634-41. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.09.006 · 3.49 Impact Factor


Available from