Nocturnal eating: sleep-related eating disorder or night eating syndrome? A videopolysomnographic study.
ABSTRACT To describe the clinical and videopolysomnographic characteristics of nocturnal eating episodes in sleep-related eating disorder.
Descriptive study of outpatients prospectively enrolled in 2 sleep centers.
Videopolysomnographic recordings done in the sleep laboratory.
Thirty-five consecutive drug-free patients with nocturnal eating.
Clinical interviews disclosed abnormal compulsory nocturnal eating episodes in all patients associated with a clinical report of sleepwalking (in 1), somniloquy (in 5), restless legs syndrome (in 8), and periodic limb movements during sleep (in 4). Videopolysomnography documented 45 episodes of nocturnal eating in 26 patients. Eating always occurred after complete awakenings from non-rapid eye movement sleep and only in 1 patient from REM sleep and was characterized by electroencephalographic alpha activity with no dissociated features of state-dependent sleep variables. Patients interviewed during the eating episodes were fully conscious and remembered the events the next day. Pathological periodic limb movements during sleep index was recorded in 22 and restless legs syndrome dyskinesias in 5 patients. Recurring chewing and swallowing movements during sleep were a feature in 29 patients, associated in about half of the events with electroencephalographic arousals.
In our patients, eating episodes occurred with normal consciousness and recall. Chewing or swallowing movements during sleep occurred frequently, resembling rhythmic masticatory-muscle activity in bruxism patients. The presence of periodic limb movements during sleep and chewing activity, the reported efficacy of dopaminergic medications, and the compulsory food-seeking behavior all argue for a dopaminergic dysfunction underlying the pathogenesis of sleep-related eating disorder.
SourceAvailable from: Piergiuseppe Vinai[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: Nocturnal eating behavior is shared by patients affected by a parasomnia, sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), and several eating disorders such as night eating syndrome (NES) and binge-eating disorder (BED); however, the differential clinical features of these patients have been poorly studied, with persisting difficulties in defining the borders between these pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate polysomnographic and personality characteristics of nocturnal eaters to further differentiate the syndromes. Methods: During a period of six months, consecutive patients complaining of nocturnal eating were asked to participate to the study. Twenty-four patients who were found to eat during the polysomnographic recording (PSG) study, and gender-matched control subjects were included. All subjects underwent a fullnight video-PSG study and a psychometric assessment including the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), the self-rating Bulimic Investigatory Test–Edinburgh (BITE), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Results: Nocturnal eaters showed a mild reduction in sleep efficiency and duration due to a moderate sleep fragmentation, whereas the percentage of each sleep stage was not significantly affected. Nocturnal eaters scored higher at many subscales of the EDI-2, at the BITE symptoms subscale, and at the BIS attentional impulsivity subscale. Conclusion: The psychological characteristics found in our patients with NES seem to be typical for patients affected by eating disorders, and support the hypothesis that the nocturnal behavior of these individuals is due to an eating disorder; however, specific traits also allow differentiation of NES from BED.Sleep Medicine 05/2015; · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) often presents with a primary complaint of sleep initiation difficulty with only ambiguous allusions to motor symptoms. This may result in the condition being misdiagnosed as a psychophysiological insomnia. Further, nocturnal eating is common in RLS and like the classic motor symptoms, patients will describe an inability to initiate sleep until their urge (to eat) is addressed. Restless nocturnal eating arises, intensifies, and subsides in parallel to motor symptoms. Once misdiagnosed as psychophysiological insomnia, RLS patients are frequently treated with benzodiazepine receptor agonists. The CNS actions of these sedating agents, suppression of memory and executive function, unleash predisposed amnestic behaviors. In the case of RLS this would be expected to include the inappropriate ambulatory and eating behaviors of sleep related eating disorder (SRED). The evidence and implications of a link between the restless eating of RLS and SRED is presented here.03/2013; 3(1):108-113. DOI:10.1007/s13679-013-0083-6
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a unique disorder characterized by a delayed pattern of food intake in which recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating and/or excessive food consumption occur after the evening meal. NES is a clinically important disorder due to its relationship to obesity, its association with other psychiatric disorders, and problems concerning sleep. However, NES often goes unrecognized by both health professionals and patients. The lack of knowledge regarding NES in clinical settings may lead to inadequate diagnoses and inappropriate treatment approaches. Therefore, the proper diagnosis of NES is the most important issue when identifying NES and providing treatment for this disorder. Clinical assessment tools such as the Night Eating Questionnaire may help health professionals working with populations vulnerable to NES. Although NES treatment studies are still in their infancy, antidepressant treatments and psychological therapies can be used for optimal management of patients with NES. Other treatment options such as melatonergic medications, light therapy, and the anticonvulsant topiramate also hold promise as future treatment options. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of NES, including its diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment approaches. Possible challenges addressing patients with NES and management options are also discussed.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 03/2015; 11:751-760. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S70312 · 2.15 Impact Factor