Nocturnal eating: Sleep-related eating disorder or night eating syndrome? A videopolysomnographic study
ABSTRACT To describe the clinical and videopolysomnographic characteristics of nocturnal eating episodes in sleep-related eating disorder.
Descriptive study of outpatients prospectively enrolled in 2 sleep centers.
Videopolysomnographic recordings done in the sleep laboratory.
Thirty-five consecutive drug-free patients with nocturnal eating.
Clinical interviews disclosed abnormal compulsory nocturnal eating episodes in all patients associated with a clinical report of sleepwalking (in 1), somniloquy (in 5), restless legs syndrome (in 8), and periodic limb movements during sleep (in 4). Videopolysomnography documented 45 episodes of nocturnal eating in 26 patients. Eating always occurred after complete awakenings from non-rapid eye movement sleep and only in 1 patient from REM sleep and was characterized by electroencephalographic alpha activity with no dissociated features of state-dependent sleep variables. Patients interviewed during the eating episodes were fully conscious and remembered the events the next day. Pathological periodic limb movements during sleep index was recorded in 22 and restless legs syndrome dyskinesias in 5 patients. Recurring chewing and swallowing movements during sleep were a feature in 29 patients, associated in about half of the events with electroencephalographic arousals.
In our patients, eating episodes occurred with normal consciousness and recall. Chewing or swallowing movements during sleep occurred frequently, resembling rhythmic masticatory-muscle activity in bruxism patients. The presence of periodic limb movements during sleep and chewing activity, the reported efficacy of dopaminergic medications, and the compulsory food-seeking behavior all argue for a dopaminergic dysfunction underlying the pathogenesis of sleep-related eating disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Nocturnal eating behavior is shared by patients affected by a parasomnia, sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), and several eating disorders such as night eating syndrome (NES) and binge-eating disorder (BED); however, the differential clinical features of these patients have been poorly studied, with persisting difficulties in defining the borders between these pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate polysomnographic and personality characteristics of nocturnal eaters to further differentiate the syndromes. Methods: During a period of six months, consecutive patients complaining of nocturnal eating were asked to participate to the study. Twenty-four patients who were found to eat during the polysomnographic recording (PSG) study, and gender-matched control subjects were included. All subjects underwent a fullnight video-PSG study and a psychometric assessment including the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), the self-rating Bulimic Investigatory Test–Edinburgh (BITE), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Results: Nocturnal eaters showed a mild reduction in sleep efficiency and duration due to a moderate sleep fragmentation, whereas the percentage of each sleep stage was not significantly affected. Nocturnal eaters scored higher at many subscales of the EDI-2, at the BITE symptoms subscale, and at the BIS attentional impulsivity subscale. Conclusion: The psychological characteristics found in our patients with NES seem to be typical for patients affected by eating disorders, and support the hypothesis that the nocturnal behavior of these individuals is due to an eating disorder; however, specific traits also allow differentiation of NES from BED.Sleep Medicine 05/2015; · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of night eating syndrome (NES) in a large cohort of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Our cross-sectional study included 120 patients examined at the University of Bologna Centre for Sleep Disorders, Bologna, Italy, and met all four International RLS criteria for the diagnosis of RLS. Each patient underwent a semistructured telephone interview investigating demographic data and general health status, RLS features and severity, presence of excessive daytime sleepiness, and presence of NES. The sample included 37 men and 83 women with a mean age of 63.8±11.5years. There were 31% of patients who reported episodes of nocturnal eating (NE); among them, 17% fulfilled the new diagnostic criteria for NES. Comparing RLS patients with and without NE, there were no differences in RLS features. However, RLS patients with NE were older (67.2±11.6 vs 62.4±11; P=.038), were in a higher body mass index (BMI) range (27.7±3.8 vs 26.1±4.1kg/m(2); P=.023), were taking more drugs for concomitant diseases (89% vs 72%; P=.031), were more likely to report insomnia (40% vs 23%; P=.041), and were using more hypnotic agents (37.8% vs 19.3%; P=.050) and dopaminergic drugs (65% vs 46%; P=.041). When comparing those RLS patients with NES diagnostic criteria and those without NES, no differences emerged in demographic, clinical, and RLS features; however, NES patients were in a higher BMI range (28.3±4.1 vs 26.2±3.9kg/m(2), P=.037), were more frequently smokers (43% vs 17%; P=.027), and were more frequently using hypnotic agents (30% vs 24%; P=.025). Lastly, no differences were found when comparing patients with a NES diagnosis and those with NE not fitting the diagnostic criteria for NES, except for a higher use of benzodiazepine drugs (BDZ) in this latter subgroup (29% vs zero; P=.014). A nocturnal compulsion to eat seems to be an intrinsic part of the clinical spectrum of RLS manifestations and an odd risk factor for increases in BMI in RLS patients. However, it is still not clear if NE in RLS would fit in one of the two known categorized syndromes of NE (i.e., sleep-related eating disorder [SRED] or NES) or if it represents a different strictly RLS-related eating behavior.Sleep Medicine 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2013.08.796 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present two carefully documented cases of patients with sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), a parasomnia which is characterized by involuntary compulsive eating during the night and whose pathophysiology is not known. Using video-polysomnography, a dream diary and psychometric examination, we found that both patients present elevated novelty seeking and increased reward sensitivity. In light of new evidence on the mesolimbic dopaminergic implication in compulsive eating disorders, our findings suggest a role of an active reward system during sleep in the manifestation of SRED.Frontiers in Neurology 11/2012; 3:168. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2012.00168