Chronic non-communicable diseases

School of Population and Health Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK.
Pathogens and Global Health (Impact Factor: 1.66). 08/2006; 100(5-6):455-64. DOI: 10.1179/136485906X97453
Source: PubMed


Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) account for almost 60% of global mortality, and 80% of deaths from NCD occur in low- and middle-income countries. One quarter of these deaths--almost 9 million in 2005--are in men and women aged <60 years. Taken together, NCD represent globally the single largest cause of mortality in people of working age, and their incidences in younger adults are substantially higher in the poor countries of the world than in the rich. The major causes of NCD-attributable mortality are cardiovascular disease (30% of total global mortality), cancers (13%), chronic respiratory disease (7%) and diabetes (2%). These conditions share a small number of behavioural risk factors, which include a diet high in saturated fat and low in fresh fruit and vegetables, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol excess. In low- and middle-income countries such risk factors tend to be concentrated in urban areas and their prevalences are increasing as a result of rapid urbanization and the increasing globalisation of the food, tobacco and alcohol industries. Because NCD have a major impact on men and women of working age and their elderly dependents, they result in lost income, lost opportunities for investment, and overall lower levels of economic development. Reductions in the incidences of many NCD and their complications are, however, already possible. Up to 80% of all cases of cardiovascular disease or type-2 diabetes and 40% of all cases of cancer, for example, are probably preventable based on current knowledge. In addition, highly cost-effective measures exist for the prevention of some of the complications of established cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Achieving these gains will require a broad range of integrated, population-based interventions as well as measures focused on the individuals at high risk. At present, the international-assistance community provides scant resources for the control of NCD in poor countries, partly, at least, because NCD continue to be wrongly perceived as predominantly diseases of the better off. As urbanization continues apace and populations age, investment in the prevention and control of NCD in low-and middle-income countries can no longer be ignored.

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    • "In low to high income countries 50-80% of health budget is spent on chronic diseases [3]. This is particularly a larger problem in low-income settings, where double burden of infectious as well as chronic diseases are straining their health services [4,5]. South Asia is one of the populous as well as the poorest regions of the world where NCDs account for nearly 50% of disease burden in adult population [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) is still unknown in Nepal. The Ministry of Health and Population, Government of Nepal has not yet formulated policy regarding NCDs in the absence of evidence based finding. The study aims to find out the hospital based prevalence of NCDs in Nepal, thus directing the concerned authorities at policy level. A cross sectional study was conducted to identify the hospital based prevalence of 4 NCDs (cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), wherein 400 indoor patients admitted during 2009 were randomly selected from each of the 31 selected health institutions which included all non-specialist tertiary level hospitals outside the Kathmandu valley (n = 25), all specialist tertiary level hospitals in the country (n = 3) and 3 non specialist tertiary level hospitals inside the Kathmandu valley. In case of Kathmandu valley, 3 non specialist health institutions- one central hospital, one medical college and one private hospital were randomly selected. The main analyses are based on the 28 non-specialist hospitals. Univariate analysis was carried out using frequencies and percentages. In bivariate analysis cross-tabulations were used. In non-specialist institutions, the hospital based NCD prevalence was found to be 31%. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (43%) was the most common NCD followed by cardiovascular disease (40%), diabetes mellitus (12%) and cancer (5%). Ovarian (14%), stomach (14%) and lung cancer (10%) were the main cancers accounting for 38% of distribution. Majority of the CVD cases were of hypertension (47%) followed by cerebrovascular accident (16%), congestive cardiac failure (11%), ischemic heart disease (7%), rheumatic heart disease (5%) and myocardial infarction (2%). CVD was common in younger age groups while COPD in older age groups. Majority among males (42%) and females (45%) were suffering from COPD. The study was able to reveal that Nepal is also facing the surging burden of NCDs similar to other developing nations in South East Asia. Furthermore, the study has provided a background data on NCDs in Nepal which should prove useful for the concerned organizations to focus and contribute towards the prevention, control and reduction of NCD burden and its risk factors.
    BMC Public Health 01/2014; 14(1):23. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-23 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "These risk factors include unhealthy lifestyle behaviours such as high tobacco and alcohol consumption, an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and raised blood pressure. They define the occurrence and severity of NCDs (1, 2) such as cancers and cardiovascular diseases which generally develop from the interaction of multiple risk factors. There is an increase in NCD risk factors in South Africa (3, 4), including among elderly South Africans (3), which may place a heavy burden on the already constrained healthcare system (3, 5). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are important risk factors of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to explore the sociodemographic predictors of multiple non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors experienced by elderly South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol, physical inactivity, fruit and vegetable intake, overweight or obesity, and hypertension) in each individual. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics, namely, age, gender, education, wealth status, population group, marital status, and residence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association between sociodemographic variables and multiple NCD risk factors. Results The mean number of NCD risk factors among all participants was three (95% confidence interval: 2.81–3.10). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that being female, being in the age group of 60–69 years, and being from the Coloured and Black African race were associated with a higher number of NCD risk factors. Marital status, educational level, wealth, and residence were not significantly associated with the number of NCD risk factors experienced. Conclusions The co-existence of multiple lifestyle NCD risk factors among the elderly is a public health concern. Comprehensive health-promotion interventions addressing the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors tailored for specific sociodemographic groups are needed.
    Global Health Action 09/2013; 6(1):20680. DOI:10.3402/gha.v6i0.20680 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    • "The greatest increases in diabetes prevalence have occurred in countries in economic transition, in particular in the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, China, and the Indian subcontinent [5]. This has the potential to put severe strain on healthcare systems in these countries [6–8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Development of higher standards for diabetes care is a core element of coping with the global diabetes epidemic. Diabetes guidelines are part of the approach to raising standards. The epidemic is greatest in countries with recent rises in income from a low base. The objective of the current study was to investigate the availability and nature of locally produced diabetes guidelines in such countries. Methods Searches were conducted using Medline, Google, and health ministry and diabetes association websites. Results Guidelines were identified in 33 of 75 countries outside North America, western Europe, and Australasia. In 25 of these 33 countries, management strategies for type 1 diabetes were included. National guidelines relied heavily on pre-existing national and international guidelines, with reference to American Diabetes Association standards of medical care and/or other consensus statements by 55%, International Diabetes Federation by 36%, European Association for the Study of Diabetes by 12%, and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists by 9%. The identified guidelines were generally evidence-based, though there was some use of secondary evidence reviews, including other guidelines, rather than original literature reviews and evidence synthesis. In type 1 diabetes guidelines, the option of different insulin regimens (mostly meal-time + basal or premix regimens) was recommended depending on patient need. Type 2 diabetes guidelines either recommended a glycosylated hemoglobin target of <7.0% (<53 mmol/mol) (70% of guidelines) or <6.5% (<47 mmol/mol) (30% of guidelines) as the ideal glycemic target. Most guidelines recommended a target fasting plasma glucose that fell within the range of 3.8–7.2 mmol/L. Most guidelines also set a 2-h post-prandial glucose target value within the range of 4.0–8.3 mmol/L. Conclusion While only a first step in achieving a high quality of disease management, national guidelines of quality and with fair consistency of recommendations are becoming prevalent globally. A further challenge is implementation of guidelines, by integration into local care processes.
    05/2013; DOI:10.1007/s13300-013-0022-2
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