Chronic non-communicable diseases.
ABSTRACT Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) account for almost 60% of global mortality, and 80% of deaths from NCD occur in low- and middle-income countries. One quarter of these deaths--almost 9 million in 2005--are in men and women aged <60 years. Taken together, NCD represent globally the single largest cause of mortality in people of working age, and their incidences in younger adults are substantially higher in the poor countries of the world than in the rich. The major causes of NCD-attributable mortality are cardiovascular disease (30% of total global mortality), cancers (13%), chronic respiratory disease (7%) and diabetes (2%). These conditions share a small number of behavioural risk factors, which include a diet high in saturated fat and low in fresh fruit and vegetables, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol excess. In low- and middle-income countries such risk factors tend to be concentrated in urban areas and their prevalences are increasing as a result of rapid urbanization and the increasing globalisation of the food, tobacco and alcohol industries. Because NCD have a major impact on men and women of working age and their elderly dependents, they result in lost income, lost opportunities for investment, and overall lower levels of economic development. Reductions in the incidences of many NCD and their complications are, however, already possible. Up to 80% of all cases of cardiovascular disease or type-2 diabetes and 40% of all cases of cancer, for example, are probably preventable based on current knowledge. In addition, highly cost-effective measures exist for the prevention of some of the complications of established cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Achieving these gains will require a broad range of integrated, population-based interventions as well as measures focused on the individuals at high risk. At present, the international-assistance community provides scant resources for the control of NCD in poor countries, partly, at least, because NCD continue to be wrongly perceived as predominantly diseases of the better off. As urbanization continues apace and populations age, investment in the prevention and control of NCD in low-and middle-income countries can no longer be ignored.
- SourceAvailable from: León Litwak[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Development of higher standards for diabetes care is a core element of coping with the global diabetes epidemic. Diabetes guidelines are part of the approach to raising standards. The epidemic is greatest in countries with recent rises in income from a low base. The objective of the current study was to investigate the availability and nature of locally produced diabetes guidelines in such countries. METHODS: Searches were conducted using Medline, Google, and health ministry and diabetes association websites. RESULTS: Guidelines were identified in 33 of 75 countries outside North America, western Europe, and Australasia. In 25 of these 33 countries, management strategies for type 1 diabetes were included. National guidelines relied heavily on pre-existing national and international guidelines, with reference to American Diabetes Association standards of medical care and/or other consensus statements by 55%, International Diabetes Federation by 36%, European Association for the Study of Diabetes by 12%, and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists by 9%. The identified guidelines were generally evidence-based, though there was some use of secondary evidence reviews, including other guidelines, rather than original literature reviews and evidence synthesis. In type 1 diabetes guidelines, the option of different insulin regimens (mostly meal-time + basal or premix regimens) was recommended depending on patient need. Type 2 diabetes guidelines either recommended a glycosylated hemoglobin target of <7.0% (<53 mmol/mol) (70% of guidelines) or <6.5% (<47 mmol/mol) (30% of guidelines) as the ideal glycemic target. Most guidelines recommended a target fasting plasma glucose that fell within the range of 3.8-7.2 mmol/L. Most guidelines also set a 2-h post-prandial glucose target value within the range of 4.0-8.3 mmol/L. CONCLUSION: While only a first step in achieving a high quality of disease management, national guidelines of quality and with fair consistency of recommendations are becoming prevalent globally. A further challenge is implementation of guidelines, by integration into local care processes.Diabetes therapy : research, treatment and education of diabetes and related disorders. 05/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Most developing countries have only limited information on the burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) even though rapid transitions in these NCDs have been predicted. To describe the burden of selected NCDs and associated risk behaviours in an urban university community in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 525 representative staff of a University in a large city in Nigeria was conducted. In all, 27.6% were already diagnosed with at least one NCD (hypertension-21.5%, diabetes-11%, cancer 2.9%) while 67.4% reported at least one risk behaviour (unhealthy diet- 96%, sedentary living- 27.4% excessive alcohol use-5.1% and smoking- 1.9%). Multiple risk behaviours were observed in 29.9% with no significant variation by sex or age. Those 40 years and above had significantly higher prevalence of NCD, particularly for hypertension (p<0.05). Only 7%, considered themselves to be at risk of NCDs. Those whose parents had NCDs OR: 5.9 (2.4-14.5) and those who currently had NCDs OR: 3.9(1.8-8.1) perceived themselves at risk of one or more NCDs, but not those with multiple risk behaviours. The high burden of NCDs and risk behaviours in the face of limited self-perceived risk has been demonstrated and calls for urgent intervention.African health sciences 03/2013; 13(1):62-7.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the opinions of infectious diseases professionals on the possibilities of monitoring patients with HIV in Primary Care. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Infectious Diseases Unit in the University Hospital «Virgen de la Victoria» in Málaga. Health professionals with more than one year experience working in infectious diseases. A total of 25 respondents: 5 doctors, 15 nurses and 5 nursing assistants. Convenience sample. Semi-structured interviews were used that were later transcribed verbatim. Content analysis was performed according to the Taylor and Bogdan approach with computer support. Validation of information was made through additional analysis, expert participation, and feedback of part of the results to the participants. Hospital care professionals considered the disease-related complexity of HIV, treatment and social aspects that may have an effect on the organizational level of care. Professionals highlighted the benefits of specialized care, although opinions differed between doctors and nurses as regards follow up in Primary Care. Some concerns emerged about the level of training, confidentiality and workload in Primary Care, although they mentioned potential advantages related to accessibility of patients. Physicians perceive difficulties in following up HIV patients in Primary Care, even for those patients with a good control of their disease. Nurses and nursing assistants are more open to this possibility due to the proximity to home and health promotion in Primary Care.Atención Primaria 12/2013; · 0.96 Impact Factor