Lung structure abnormalities, but normal lung function in pediatric bronchiectasis.
ABSTRACT Bronchiectasis is not considered to be uncommon in children anymore. The relationship between pulmonary function and severity of bronchiectasis is still controversial.
To assess the extent and severity of bronchiectasis through high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan score, and to correlate it with clinical, microbiological, and functional data.
Forty-three white children with HRCT-diagnosed bronchiectasis were studied. Bronchiectasis extent, bronchial wall thickening severity, and bronchial wall dilatation severity were evaluated using the Reiff score. Clinical, microbiological, and spirometry results were related to total HRCT scan score and to subscores as well.
The percentages of affected lobes were as follows: right lower lobe, 65%; middle lobe, 56%; left lower lobe, 51%; right upper lobe, 37%; lingula, 30%; and left upper lobe, 30% (chi(2) = 18.4; p = 0.002). The mean (+/- SEM) HRCT score was 20 +/- 2.6. Total score or subscores of bronchiectasis extent, bronchial wall thickening severity, and bronchial wall dilatation severity were not significantly related to FEV(1) and FVC. Seventy-four percent of patients had asthma. The age at the onset of cough correlated with age at the time of the HRCT scan (p = 0.004) and with the presence of asthma (p = 0.01). Positive findings of deep throat or sputum cultures were found more frequently in atopic patients (p = 0.02) and asthmatic (p < 0.01) patients, and in children who were < 2 years of age at the onset of cough (p < 0.01).
Normal lung function may coexist with HRCT scan abnormalities and does not exclude damage to the bronchial structure. Pulmonary function is not an accurate method for assessing the severity of lung disease in children with bronchiectasis.
Article: The use of high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the chest in evaluating the effect of tobramycin solution for inhalation in cystic fibrosis lung disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To compare the usefulness of HRCT of the chest versus spirometric measures (PFTs) in evaluating the effect of tobramycin solution for inhalation (TSI) in cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirty-two CF patients with mostly mild lung disease age > or = 6 years, were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Patients were chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa for at least 6 months prior to and at enrollment. If patients were on TSI, they were taken off for at least 3 months prior to enrollment. Duration was 6 months; 31 subjects completed the study. HRCT and PFTs were evaluated at baseline, after 28 days of treatment and at the end of the study. Study medication was administered as 5 ml nebulized treatment twice a day for 28 days followed by 28 days off (one cycle). Study consisted of three cycles. Two radiologists scored all films using a validated system. A total HRCT score consists of the sum of subscores: linear opacities, hyperinflation, nodular opacities, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging, and bronchiectasis; each subscore could range from 0 to 80, with potential total scores varying from 0 to 480. The percent of the maximum possible HRCT score was then calculated and used for all comparisons. Using two tailed paired t-test, the percent maximum HRCT score decreased by 1.4 +/- 2.6% (mean +/- SD) (P = 0.049) and 0.3 +/- 2.8% (P = 0.63) for the TSI group and decreased by 0.1 +/- 1.5% (P = 0.74) and increased by 0.6 +/- 1.8% (P = 0.23) for the placebo group between visits 1 and 2, and visits 1 and 3, respectively. The data were then analyzed using a mixed model utilizing changes in scores over the durations of the study for each group. The change of HRCT score for the TSI group was -0.24/day (P = 0.02) and -0.03/day (P = 0.22), and for the control group the change was -0.01 (P = 0.93) and 0.02 (P = 0.29) between visits 1 and 2, and visits 1 and 3 respectively. FEF(25-75)% and FEV(1)% changes were not statistically significant using both analyses. HRCT seems to be more sensitive in detecting treatment effect than PFT in CF patients with mild lung disease, especially following the first treatment period (visit 2). Total HRCT score showed some improvement at the end of the study, though not statistically significant. This is probably due to obtaining the HRCT an average of 30 days after completion of the TSI treatment, and selection of study population with mostly mild lung disease. This could indicate that the most significant improvement in the total HRCT score in this patient population occurs after the first treatment period with TSI.Pediatric Pulmonology 05/2010; 45(5):440-9. · 2.53 Impact Factor