The combination of ionizing radiation and peripheral vaccination produces long-term survival of mice bearing established invasive GL261 gliomas.
ABSTRACT High-grade glioma treatment includes ionizing radiation therapy. The high invasiveness of glioma cells precludes their eradication and is responsible for the dismal prognosis. Recently, we reported the down-regulation of MHC class I (MHC-I) products in invading tumor cells in human and mouse GL261 gliomas. Here, we tested the hypothesis that whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) up-regulates MHC-I expression on GL261 tumors and enhances the effectiveness of immunotherapy.
MHC-I molecule expression on GL261 cells was analyzed in vitro and in vivo by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, respectively. To test the response of established GL261 gliomas to treatment, mice with measurable (at CT imaging) brain tumors were randomly assigned to four groups receiving (a) no treatment, (b) WBRT in two fractions of 4 Gy, (c) vaccination with irradiated GL261 cells secreting granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, or (d) WBRT and vaccination. Endpoints were tumor response and survival.
An ionizing radiation dose of 4 Gy maximally up-regulated MHC-I molecules on GL261 cells in vitro. In vivo, WBRT induced the expression of the beta2-microglobulin light chain subunit of the MHC class I complex on glioma cells invading normal brain and increased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration. However, the survival advantage obtained with WBRT or vaccination alone was minimal. In contrast, WBRT in combination with vaccination increased long-term survival to 40% to 80%, compared with 0% to 10% in the other groups (P < 0.002). Surviving animals showed antitumor immunity by rejecting challenge tumors.
Ionizing radiation can be successfully combined with peripheral vaccination for the treatment of established high-grade gliomas.
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ABSTRACT: Emerging insights into the mechanisms of activation and negative regulation of innate and adaptive immune cells are providing new opportunities for the development of safe and effective cancer vaccines.Nature Immunology 01/2006; 6(12):1207-10. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The immunosuppressive effects of irradiation are well known; however, under certain circumstances irradiation also augments the local immune response by as yet undefined mechanisms. Because of the importance of HLA class I antigen in immune regulation and the fact that killing of tumor cells by cytotoxic T cells is HLA antigen-restricted, the authors studied HLA class I antigen expression in eight glioblastomas multiforme, four meningiomas, and four medulloblastomas. Twenty fragments of each tumor specimen were placed in short-term cultures immediately after resection. For each tumor, control Sample 1 was not irradiated. Sample 2 was irradiated on Day 1, and two groups of the remaining pieces of each tumor (specimens 3 to 10) were irradiated on two consecutive days. Escalating radiation doses were given, starting at 200 cGy/day for Sample 2 up to 1000 cGy/day for Sample 10. The total dose range was 200 to 2000 cGy. Corresponding nonirradiated tumor fragments served as controls. Four hours after irradiation, each sample was processed and stained for HLA class I antigen using the immunoperoxidase technique. The tumor cells were intensely stained in nonirradiated glioblastomas and meningiomas, whereas no staining was observed in medulloblastomas. In four of the eight glioblastomas and in all four meningiomas, irradiation augmented HLA class I antigen expression compared to controls. This effect was dose-dependent and was maximum in the 1200 cGy-treated specimens. No change was observed in the other four glioblastomas or in the medulloblastomas. The data suggest that irradiation does not decrease and may even induce HLA class I antigen expression in some brain tumors. This may be one of the mechanisms by which immunotherapy operates after irradiation. Further studies are required to elucidate optimum radiation doses and fractionation as well as optimum timing of immunotherapy.Journal of Neurosurgery 07/1994; 80(6):1074-7. · 3.15 Impact Factor
Article: [Brainstem gliomas].[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Brainstem gliomas have been increasingly understood in the last two decades and they are nowadays regarded as an heterogeneous group of tumors with tendency towards the pediatric age, where they account for 10-20% of brain neoplasms. Besides the well known diffuse tumor, several subtypes, with a different biological behaviour, amenable to surgical resection and better prognosis, have been identified, giving rise to many classifications and terms. In the other way, attention has been recently paid to adult brainstem gliomas in contrast to pediatric tumors. Based on a review of the literature, we describe the different subtypes of brainstem gliomas, with particular interest on therapeutic approaches and differences between pediatric and adult tumors, employing iconography from our series.Neurocirugia (Asturias, Spain) 03/2004; 15(1):56-66. · 0.34 Impact Factor