Countermeasures for sleep loss and deprivation

Stanford University Center of Excellence for Sleep Disorders, 401 Quarry Road, Suite 3301, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. .
Current Treatment Options in Neurology (Impact Factor: 1.94). 10/2006; 8(5):361-6. DOI: 10.1007/s11940-006-0025-7
Source: PubMed


Sleep deprivation is ubiquitous and carries profound consequences in terms of personal and public health and safety. There is no substitute for a good night's sleep. Sleep that is optimal in quality and quantity for individuals, factoring in their age and personal sleep requirements, will minimize sleep debt and maximize daytime performance. Therefore, setting aside an adequate amount of time for sleep should be a priority; sleep should not be sacrificed at the expense of other activities of daily living. Nevertheless, there are certain therapeutic countermeasures available for individuals who are unable to obtain adequate sleep because of medical or sleep-related conditions (eg, narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea) when excessive daytime sleepiness is the main feature of the condition, or residual sleepiness despite treatment for the main conditions is present. These therapeutic countermeasures may also be considered in situations in which occupational constraints (eg, rotating shift work, military duty) dictate that constant or heightened vigilance is important or critical to work performance, crucial decision making, and/or survival. Exploration of the causes of sleep loss or deprivation, whether it is voluntary, or work or family induced, and/or the effects of a medical or sleep disorder, is a necessary first step in the evaluation of a patient who has significant daytime fatigue or sleepiness. Wake-promoting substances and medications such as caffeine, modafinil, methylphenidate, and dextroamphetamine may be considered in situations in which sleep loss is unavoidable or persists despite treatment of an underlying disorder that is characterized by or associated with daytime fatigue or sleepiness.

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    • "The challenges associated with the transition to college, including reduced parental supervision , extracurricular activities, academic workloads and social commitments (Malinauskas et al., 2007; Millman, 2005; Oginska et al., 2006) adversely affect sleep duration and sleep patterns of college students (Lund et al., 2010; Millman, 2005). Irregular sleep patterns can lead to daytime sleepiness, which is a result of sleep loss and deprivation (AASM, 2001; Kushida, 2006). There is a substantial body of evidence that shows daytime sleepiness is associated with reduced emotional intelligence, impaired constructive thinking skills, poor academic performance, job loss, headaches and obesity (AASM, 2001; Killgore et al., 2008; Slater et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted this study to evaluate the prevalence of daytime sleepiness and evening chronotype, and to assess the extent to which both are associated with the use of caffeinated stimulants among 3,000 Thai college students. Demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Horne and Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire were used to evaluate prevalence of daytime sleepiness and circadian preference. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between sleep disorders and consumption of caffeinated beverages. Overall, the prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 27.9 % (95% CI: 26.2-29.5%) while the prevalence of evening chronotype was 13% (95% CI: 11.8-14.2%). Students who use energy drinks were more likely to be evening types. For instance, the use of M100/M150 energy drinks was associated with a more than 3-fold increased odds of evening chronotype (OR 3.50; 95% CI 1.90-6.44), while Red Bull users were more than twice as likely to have evening chronotype (OR 2.39; 95% CI 1.02-5.58). Additionally, those who consumed any energy drinks were more likely to be daytime sleepers. For example, Red Bull (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.08-2.75) or M100/M150 (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.10-2.11) consumption was associated with increased odds of daytime sleepiness. Our findings emphasize the importance of implementing educational and prevention programs targeted toward improving sleep hygiene and reducing the consumption of energy drinks among young adults.
    06/2014; 8(6):202-210. DOI:10.5897/JPHE2014.0620
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    • "Interventions addressing farmrelated injury need to consider the role of sleep quantity. Any intervention to reduce daytime sleepiness should initially focus on increasing sleep quantity; however, therapeutic countermeasures to reduce daytime sleepiness are available [Driskell and Mullen, 2005; Kushida, 2006]. Our study provides new evidence that seasonal fatigue-related factors are associated with agricultural workrelated injuries among the Saskatchewan farm community. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to examine the relationship between seasonal variations in sleep quantity and work-related injuries on Saskatchewan farms. A cross-sectional analysis of data from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort Study was conducted. Analyses were restricted to workers, aged ≥16 years. The primary outcome was work-related injury in the last year. Logistic regression models were used to identify associations between sleep quantity and farm injury. After controlling for confounding variables peak production season sleep was not associated with increased odds of injury. However, those obtaining ≤5 hr sleep per night during non-peak production seasons had increased odds of injury (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.04-5.59) compared with those sleeping ≥7 hr per night. We identified that restricted sleep durations, in certain seasons, placed farmers, and farm workers at risk of injury. Agricultural injury intervention programs need to consider the role of seasonal-related variations in sleep on farm injury.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 04/2012; 55(4):367-75. DOI:10.1002/ajim.22003 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    • "Insufficient sleep can have deleterious effects on personal health, cognitive performance, and safety [1] [2] [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Insufficient sleep can adversely affect a variety of cognitive abilities, ranging from simple alertness to higher-order executive functions. Although the effects of sleep loss on mood and cognition are well documented, there have been no controlled studies examining its effects on perceived emotional intelligence (EQ) and constructive thinking, abilities that require the integration of affect and cognition and are central to adaptive functioning. Twenty-six healthy volunteers completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi) and the Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI) at rested baseline and again after 55.5 and 58 h of continuous wakefulness, respectively. Relative to baseline, sleep deprivation was associated with lower scores on Total EQ (decreased global emotional intelligence), Intrapersonal functioning (reduced self-regard, assertiveness, sense of independence, and self-actualization), Interpersonal functioning (reduced empathy toward others and quality of interpersonal relationships), Stress Management skills (reduced impulse control and difficulty with delay of gratification), and Behavioral Coping (reduced positive thinking and action orientation). Esoteric Thinking (greater reliance on formal superstitions and magical thinking processes) was increased. These findings are consistent with the neurobehavioral model suggesting that sleep loss produces temporary changes in cerebral metabolism, cognition, emotion, and behavior consistent with mild prefrontal lobe dysfunction.
    Sleep Medicine 08/2008; 9(5):517-26. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2007.07.003 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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