EGF and PDGF receptor tyrosine kinases as therapeutic targets for chronic lung diseases.
ABSTRACT Cell-surface receptor tyrosine kinases play pivotal roles in development, tissue repair, and normal cellular homeostasis. Aberrant expression or signaling patterns of these kinases has also been linked to the progression of a diversity of diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, asthma, and fibrosis. Two major families of receptor tyrosine kinases, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) families, have received a great deal of attention as potential therapeutic targets for pulmonary diseases, as these receptors have been shown to play key roles in chronic tissue remodeling in asthma, bronchitis, and pulmonary fibrosis. The EGFR system on epithelial cells and underlying mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells) drives numerous phenotypic changes during the progression of these pulmonary diseases, including epithelial cell mucous cell metaplasia and mesenchymal cell hyperplasia, differentiation, and extracellular matrix production. The PDGFR system, located primarily on mesenchymal cells, transduces signals for cell survival, growth and chemotaxis. The variety of EGFR and PDGFR ligands produced by the airway epithelium or adjacent mesenchymal cells allows for intimate epithelial-mesenchymal cell communication. A full understanding of the complex mechanisms involving these receptors and ligands should lead to therapeutic strategies for the treatment of a wide range of fibroproliferative lung diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remain a global health problem, with increasing morbidity and mortality. Despite differences in the causal agents, both diseases exhibit various degrees of inflammatory changes, structural alterations of the airways leading to airflow limitation. The existence of transient disease phenotypes which overlap both diseases and which progressively decline the lung function has complicated the search for an effective therapy. Important characteristics of chronic airway diseases include airway and vascular remodeling, of which the molecular mechanisms are complex and poorly understood. Recently, we and others have shown that airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells are not only structural and contractile components of airways, rather they bear capabilities of producing large number of pro-inflammatory and mitogenic factors. Increase in size and number of blood vessels both inside and outside the smooth muscle layer as well as hyperemia of bronchial vasculature are contributing factors in airway wall remodeling in patients with chronic airway diseases, proposing for the ongoing mechanisms like angiogenesis and vascular dilatation. We believe that vascular changes directly add to the airway narrowing and hyper-responsiveness by exudation and transudation of proinflammatory mediators, cytokines and growth factors; facilitating trafficking of inflammatory cells; causing oedema of the airway wall and promoting ASM accumulation. One of the key regulators of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor in concerted action with other endothelial mitogens play pivotal role in regulating bronchial angiogenesis. In this review article we address recent advances in pulmonary angiogenesis and remodelling that contribute in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases.Cell biochemistry and biophysics 08/2013; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The alveolar compartment, the fundamental gas exchange unit in the lung, is critical for tissue oxygenation and viability. We explored hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a pleiotrophic cytokine that promotes epithelial proliferation, morphogenesis, migration, and resistance to apoptosis, as a candidate mediator of alveolar formation and regeneration. Mice deficient in the expression of the HGF receptor in lung epithelial cells demonstrated impaired airspace formation marked by a reduction in alveolar epithelial cell abundance and survival, truncation of the pulmonary vascular bed, and enhanced oxidative stress. Administration of recombinant HGF to tight-skin mice, an established genetic emphysema model, attenuated airspace enlargement and reduced oxidative stress. Repair in the TSK/+ mouse was punctuated by enhanced akt and stat3 activation. HGF treatment of an alveolar epithelial cell line not only induced proliferation and scattering of the cells but also conferred protection against staurosporine-induced apoptosis, properties critical for alveolar septation. HGF promoted cell survival was attenuated by akt inhibition. Primary alveolar epithelial cells treated with HGF showed improved survival and enhanced antioxidant production. In conclusion, using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function maneuvers, we show that HGF signaling is necessary for alveolar homeostasis in the developing lung and that augmentation of HGF signaling can improve airspace morphology in murine emphysema. Our studies converge on prosurvival signaling and antioxidant protection as critical pathways in HGF-mediated airspace maintenance or repair. These findings support the exploration of HGF signaling enhancement for diseases of the airspace.PLoS Genetics 02/2013; 9(2):e1003228. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that nasal airway remodeling occurs in allergic rhinitis (AR). Although angiogenesis is an important component of airway remodeling in asthma, its involvement in AR has been little studied. Furthermore, information regarding the role of potent angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), in the nasal airway remodeling process is limited. This study was conducted to investigate the role of VEGF and PDGF in nasal airway remodeling, and to assess the preventive effects of anti-angiogenic drugs on this process in a murine AR model. Mice were systemically sensitized and subjected to inhalation of ovalbumin (OVA) twice a week for 3 months. Control mice were challenged with phosphate buffered saline, while the treatment group received SU1498, a VEGF receptor inhibitor, and/or AG1296, a PDGF receptor inhibitor, via intraperitoneal injection 4 hours prior to each OVA inhalation. Staining using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff were separately performed to assess eosinophil infiltration, subepithelial fibrosis, and goblet cell hyperplasia, respectively, in the nasal airway. Immunohistochemical staining for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was also conducted. Repetitive intranasal inhalation of OVA resulted in significant increases in eosinophil infiltration, subepithelial fibrosis, goblet cell count, and MMP-9/TIMP-1 expression. Administration of SU1498 or AG1296 prevented these abnormal responses. The results of this study suggest that a causal relationship may exist between angiogenic factors and nasal airway remodeling in AR. Inhibition of VEGF or PDGF receptors may, in turn, suppress the remodeling process through the regulation of MMP-9/TIMP-1 expression.Allergy, asthma & immunology research 01/2012; 4(1):37-45. · 2.65 Impact Factor