The availability of data on the pig genome sequence prompted us to characterize the porcine IFN-alpha (PoIFN-alpha) multigene family. Fourteen functional PoIFN-alpha genes and two PoIFN-alpha pseudogenes were detected in the porcine genome. Multiple sequence alignment revealed a C-terminal deletion of eight residues in six subtypes. A phylogenetic tree of the porcine IFN-alpha gene family defined the evolutionary relationship of the various subtypes. In addition, analysis of the evolutionary rate and the effect of positive selection suggested that the C-terminal deletion is a strategy for preservation in the genome. Eight PoIFN-alpha subtypes were isolated from the porcine liver genome and expressed in BHK-21 cells line. We detected the level of transcription by real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The antiviral activities of the products were determined by WISH cells/Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) and PK 15 cells/Pseudorabies Virus (PRV) respectively. We found the antiviral activities of intact PoIFN-alpha genes are approximately 2-50 times higher than those of the subtypes with C-terminal deletions in WISH cells and 15-55 times higher in PK 15 cells. There was no obvious difference between the subtypes with and without C-terminal deletion on acid susceptibility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highlights
• Swine interferon alpha is able to alter CSFV pathogenesis.
• Adenovirus expressing swine interferon as a potential biotherapeutic for CSFV.
• Different swine interferon alpha genes possess differential effects on CSFV infection.
Interferon-alpha (IFNα) can effectively inhibit or abort a viral infection within the host. It has been reported that IFN induction and production is hindered during classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection. Most of those studies have been performed in vitro, making it difficult to elucidate the actual role of IFNs during CSFV infection in swine. Here, we report the effect of IFNα treatment (delivered by a replication defective recombinant human adenovirus type 5, Ad5) in swine experimentally infected with highly virulent CSFV strain Brescia. Treatment with two different subtypes of IFNα delayed the appearance of CSF-related clinical signs and virus replication although it did not prevent lethal disease. This is the first report describing the effect of IFNα treatment during CSFV infection in swine.
Classical swine fever virus; Interferon type I; Protection
"The IFN-o shows a high activity against many virus infections and are found in human, pig, cat, and rabbit (Hauptmann and Swetly 1985; Charlier and others 1993; Yang and others 2007; Zhao and others 2009). The type I IFNs have been exploited for the systemic treatment of human HIV, hepatitis B and C infection (Levin and others 1982; Manion and others 2012), but beyond that, type I IFNs play an important role in livestock farming, and IFN-a is well studied in pigs and used as a powerful adjuvant for a recombinant protein vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine (Cheng and others 2006, 2007a, 2007b). As to type II and type III IFNs, both have one member each, IFN-g and IFNl , respectively. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-λ exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-λ activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-λ induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-λ in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2'5'-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-λ protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-λ to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-λ receptor 1 (CaIFN-λR1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-λ bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-λR1-EC (rCaIFN-λR1-EC).
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 06/2014; 34(11). DOI:10.1089/jir.2014.0009 · 2.00 Impact Factor
"The rAd-derived non-coding RNA VA1 can be expressed so strongly that it saturates the exportin-5 pathway, which is necessary for the transport of both foreign shRNA and cellular microRNA
[33,34]. The differential tissue distributions of rAd and FMDV are an additional complication
. In this study, the MTCL were subjected to two rounds of monoclonal selection and were passaged at a 1:2 to 1:3 ratio 10 to 15 times before virus challenge, and F3 or F4 transgenic suckling mice underwent antiviral testing. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is responsible for substantial economic losses in livestock breeding each year, and the development of new strategies is needed to overcome the limitations of existing vaccines and antiviral drugs. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral potential of transgenic porcine cells and suckling mice that simultaneously expressed two short-hairpin RNA (shRNAs) targeting the conserved regions of the viral polymerase protein 3D and the non-structural protein 2B. First, two recombinant shRNA-expressing plasmids, PB-EN3D2B and PB-N3D2B, were constructed and the efficiency of the constructs for suppressing an artificial target was demonstrated in BHK-21 cells. We then integrated PB-EN3D2B into the genome of the porcine cell line IBRS-2 using the piggyBac transposon system, and stable monoclonal transgenic cell lines (MTCL) were selected. Of the 6 MTCL that were used in the antiviral assay, 3 exhibited significant resistance with suppressing ratios of more than 94% at 48 hours post-challenge (hpc) to both serotype O and serotype Asia 1 FMDV. MTCL IB-3D2B-6 displayed the strongest antiviral activity, which resulted in 100% inhibition of FMDV replication until 72 hpc. Moreover, the shRNA-expressing fragment of PB-N3D2B was integrated into the mouse genome by DNA microinjection to produce transgenic mice. When challenged with serotype O FMDV, the offspring of the transgenic mouse lines N3D2B-18 and N3D2B-81 exhibited higher survival rates of 19% to 27% relative to their non-transgenic littermates. The results suggest that these heritable shRNAs were able to suppress FMDV replication in the transgenic cell lines and suckling mice.
Veterinary Research 07/2013; 44(1):47. DOI:10.1186/1297-9716-44-47 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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