Ganoderma — A Therapeutic Fungal Biofactory

Micoteca da Universidade do Minho, Centro de Engenharia Biológica, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.
Phytochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.55). 10/2006; 67(18):1985-2001. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.07.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ganoderma is a basidiomycete white rot fungus which has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries particularly in China, Japan and Korea. A great deal of work has been carried out on Ganoderma lucidum. The common names for preparations include Lingzhi, Munnertake, Sachitake, Reishi and Youngzhi. This review collates the publications detailing activities and compounds by representative species whilst considering the most valid claims of effectiveness. The biological activities reported of preparations from Ganoderma are remarkable and given most emphasis herein as distinct from structure/activity information. The metabolites consist of mainly polysaccharides and terpenoids. Many are activities against the major diseases of our time and so the present review is of great importance. The list of effects is huge ranging from anti-cancer to relieving blockages of the bladder. However, the reports have not all been tested scientifically with the convincing evidence is reserved for assays of pure compounds. It is a prime example of an ancient remedy being of great relevance to the modern era. There does appear to be an assumption that the therapeutic effects attributed to the fungus have been proven. The next step is to produce some effective medicines which may be hampered by problems of mass production.

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Available from: Russell Paterson, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus belonging to the Polyporaceae family, is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine. Modern studies have revealed that Ganoderma lucidum contain a variety of bioactive ingredients, including triterpenoids, polysaccharides, sterols, fatty acids, nucleosides and alkaloids [5], and possess multiple pharmacological activities, such as antitumor [6], Immunomodulation [7] [8], anti-inflammatory [9], antiviral [10], antioxidant [11], anti-aging [12] and anti-diabetic [13] effects. Due to its ability to cure many different diseases it received names like " Elixir of life " , " Food of Gods " , " Mushroom of Universe " [14] [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To study the isolation, structural characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from the medicinal mushroom G.lucidum. In this study structural characterization of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides was conducted by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses. Antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides was measured by 1,1–diphenyl–2–icryl-hydrazyl (DPPH-), Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay (HO-), superoxide anion (O-) radical scavenging assay and Ferrous ion (Fe 2+) chelating assay. Scavenging effect of G. lucidum polysaccharides and ascorbic acid on the DPPH radical scavenging, Hydroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and Ferrous ion (Fe 2+) chelating radical scavenging-dependently increased and was 30.45% and 85.40%, 35.70% and 90.50%, 49.68% and 90.10%, 32.69% and 80.26% at the dose of 4 mg/ml respectively. The FT-IR spectra revealed the general characteristic absorbance peaks of the GLP. The SEM image demonstrated surface features of the GLP. This study suggests that the Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides could potentially be used as natural antioxidants.
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    • "Ganoderma and Fomes are Basidiomycetes which belong to the Polyporaceae of the order Aphyllophorales [1] [2] [3].These mushrooms have been currently used for medicinal purposes for centuries [4] [5]. For the last decades, Ganoderma and Fomes were intensively studied for their active compounds, several compounds were elucidated and many of valuable biological activities were revealed [6] [7] [8] [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: White rot fungi are capable to degrade efficiently a wide range of complex substrates due to their ability to produce highly specific extracellular enzymes. Forty five fungal strains of Ganoderma sp. and Fomes sp. isolated from basidiocarps harvested from different host trees from El Kala National Park, El Tarf (Algeria) were qualitatively screened for extracellular enzymes such as amylase, cellulases and protease. The results revealed that most of fungal isolates produced extracellular enzyme activities with quite different intensity. All the isolates were positive for cellulases, with an important production of endo glucanases on medium with soluble cellulose (carboxymethyl cellulose), moderate exoglucanase activities were observed on media with insoluble celluloses. The production of protease was different among the isolates, a significant protease activity were recorded in only four fungal isolates. Whereas, all the strains showed weak amylase activity in media supplemented with soluble starch or corn starch.
    Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 07/2015; 6(4):1455-1462. · 0.35 Impact Factor
    • "G. lucidum is the most frequently cited species (882 occurrences of the binomials referenced in PubMed as opposed to 19 for G. sinense), although the name represents a misidentification when applied to Asian material (Cao et al. 2012; Wang et al. 2012). Ling Zhi has a broad range of pharmacological properties, including anti-tumor and hypolipidemic activity (Wasser 2005; Paterson 2006). A special class of oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenes (OLTT) known as ganoderic acids has been linked to antitumor, anti-HIV, antihypertensive , antihepatotoxic, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidative, antinociceptive, and anti-complement properties, as well as to platelet aggregation activity and inhibition of histamine release (Toth et al. 1983; Lee et al. 1998; Min et al. 2000; Wu et al. 2001; Gao et al. 2002; Gao 2006; Liu et al. 2007; Xu et al. 2010; Xia et al. 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenes (OLTT), including ganoderic acids and lucidenic acids produced by fungi of the genus Ganoderma (Polyporales), are abundantly documented for their potential pharmacological value. In order to test the correlation between species identity and OLTT composition, methanolic extracts of seven laccate Ganoderma species were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. OLTT profiles of each species were compared to a phylogenetic reconstruction of Ganoderma based on ITS rDNA sequences. The results suggest a high specificity in OLTT composition in one of the phylogenetic lineages of Ganoderma that encompasses tropical species, when no OLTT compound was detected in other lineages (including the European G. lucidum and the Asian G. sinense). Within the OLTT-positive lineage, G. sichuanense, G. martinicense, and G. tuberculosum (Asian-tropicum clade) were characterized by a specific composition in ganoderic acids and G. curtisii by a variety of lucidenic acids. An unidentified OLTT was found in G. resinaceum, also equivocally positioned in phylogenetic analyses. These results confirm OLTT as a suitable taxonomic marker in a lineage of pharmacologically and economically valuable species. Correlations with phylogeny, and development of OLTT composition as a fingerprint tool for quality control, could be an issue to address next, based on a more complete species sampling.
    Mycological Progress 06/2015; 14(7). DOI:10.1007/s11557-015-1066-7 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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