Ganoderma — A Therapeutic Fungal Biofactory

Micoteca da Universidade do Minho, Centro de Engenharia Biológica, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.
Phytochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.55). 10/2006; 67(18):1985-2001. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.07.004
Source: PubMed


Ganoderma is a basidiomycete white rot fungus which has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries particularly in China, Japan and Korea. A great deal of work has been carried out on Ganoderma lucidum. The common names for preparations include Lingzhi, Munnertake, Sachitake, Reishi and Youngzhi. This review collates the publications detailing activities and compounds by representative species whilst considering the most valid claims of effectiveness. The biological activities reported of preparations from Ganoderma are remarkable and given most emphasis herein as distinct from structure/activity information. The metabolites consist of mainly polysaccharides and terpenoids. Many are activities against the major diseases of our time and so the present review is of great importance. The list of effects is huge ranging from anti-cancer to relieving blockages of the bladder. However, the reports have not all been tested scientifically with the convincing evidence is reserved for assays of pure compounds. It is a prime example of an ancient remedy being of great relevance to the modern era. There does appear to be an assumption that the therapeutic effects attributed to the fungus have been proven. The next step is to produce some effective medicines which may be hampered by problems of mass production.

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    • "Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus belonging to the Polyporaceae family, is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine. Modern studies have revealed that Ganoderma lucidum contain a variety of bioactive ingredients, including triterpenoids, polysaccharides, sterols, fatty acids, nucleosides and alkaloids [5], and possess multiple pharmacological activities, such as antitumor [6], Immunomodulation [7] [8], anti-inflammatory [9], antiviral [10], antioxidant [11], anti-aging [12] and anti-diabetic [13] effects. Due to its ability to cure many different diseases it received names like " Elixir of life " , " Food of Gods " , " Mushroom of Universe " [14] [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To study the isolation, structural characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from the medicinal mushroom G.lucidum. In this study structural characterization of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides was conducted by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses. Antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides was measured by 1,1–diphenyl–2–icryl-hydrazyl (DPPH-), Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay (HO-), superoxide anion (O-) radical scavenging assay and Ferrous ion (Fe 2+) chelating assay. Scavenging effect of G. lucidum polysaccharides and ascorbic acid on the DPPH radical scavenging, Hydroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and Ferrous ion (Fe 2+) chelating radical scavenging-dependently increased and was 30.45% and 85.40%, 35.70% and 90.50%, 49.68% and 90.10%, 32.69% and 80.26% at the dose of 4 mg/ml respectively. The FT-IR spectra revealed the general characteristic absorbance peaks of the GLP. The SEM image demonstrated surface features of the GLP. This study suggests that the Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides could potentially be used as natural antioxidants.
    • "To date, numerous studies on spores, mycelia, and fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidium, G. tsugae, G. sinense, Ganoderma resinaceum, Ganoderma applanatum, and Ganoderma concinna have been carried out (Mizushina et al., 1999; Hong et al., 2004; Huie and Di, 2004; Sliva, 2006; Liu et al., 2009b; Peng et al., 2013). Among the many biological activities such as immunoregulatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects, and antiosteoclastic differentiation activities, a notable anticancer potential was also observed (Yuen and Gohel, 2005; Paterson, 2006; Wang et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Ganoderma includes about 80 species growing on cut or rotten trees. The most commonly used species is Ganoderma ludicum. Biomolecules responsible for the health benefits of Ganoderma are polysaccharides with an immunostimulative effect and triterpenes with a cytotoxic action. For more than 2000 years, it has been used traditionally in the treatment of various pathological conditions and recently, its immunoregulatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticancer potential has been confirmed. A wide range of Ganoderma extracts and preparations arrest the cell cycle in different phases and consequently inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cells. Extracts containing polysaccharides stimulate immunological reactions through the production of various cytokines and mobilization of immune system cells. In-vivo studies have confirmed the anticancer potential and the antimetastatic effects of compounds originating from Ganoderma. There is also evidence for the chemopreventive action of Ganoderma extracts in bladder, prostate, liver, and breast cancer. The results of clinical studies suggest the combined use of G. lucidum with conventional chemotherapy/radiotherapy, but the methodology and the results of these studies are being questioned. Therefore, a constant need for new clinical trials exists.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 08/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000204 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Ganoderma and Fomes are Basidiomycetes which belong to the Polyporaceae of the order Aphyllophorales [1] [2] [3].These mushrooms have been currently used for medicinal purposes for centuries [4] [5]. For the last decades, Ganoderma and Fomes were intensively studied for their active compounds, several compounds were elucidated and many of valuable biological activities were revealed [6] [7] [8] [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: White rot fungi are capable to degrade efficiently a wide range of complex substrates due to their ability to produce highly specific extracellular enzymes. Forty five fungal strains of Ganoderma sp. and Fomes sp. isolated from basidiocarps harvested from different host trees from El Kala National Park, El Tarf (Algeria) were qualitatively screened for extracellular enzymes such as amylase, cellulases and protease. The results revealed that most of fungal isolates produced extracellular enzyme activities with quite different intensity. All the isolates were positive for cellulases, with an important production of endo glucanases on medium with soluble cellulose (carboxymethyl cellulose), moderate exoglucanase activities were observed on media with insoluble celluloses. The production of protease was different among the isolates, a significant protease activity were recorded in only four fungal isolates. Whereas, all the strains showed weak amylase activity in media supplemented with soluble starch or corn starch.
    Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 07/2015; 6(4):1455-1462. · 0.35 Impact Factor
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