Levels of physical activity (PA) contribute to health status and outcomes directly and indirectly via the effects of PA on obesity and other risk factors. Much past surveillance has focused on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), but this may bias estimates of prevalence. This study explores inclusion of non-leisure-time walking and bicycling (NLTWB) used for transportation on the prevalence of adherence to PA recommendations and the magnitude of apparent disparities in adherence for California adults.
Results of the 2001 California Health Interview Survey, a large (n = 55,151) telephone survey were analyzed in 2005 using tabulation and logistic regression.
Higher levels of LTPA were associated with youth, males, education, income, Pacific Islanders, and non-Hispanic (NH) whites. Inclusion of NLTWB reduced these differences for all five variables. The largest decreases in disparities in adherence occurred for race/ethnicity, education, and income, with decreases in adherence differences from approximately 18% to 7% for NH white vs Latino, approximately 27% to 16% for more than high school versus less than high school, and approximately 25% to 11% for more than 300% versus less than 100% of poverty level. Logistic regression comparing adherence gives similar results. For example, in respondents with more than high school education versus less than high school education (referent), the odds ratio changed from 2.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-2.4) to 1.7 (1.6-1.9) after the inclusion of NLTWB.
Assessment of PA in multiple domains is required to understand differences in total levels of PA for people with different incomes, education levels, and racial/ethnic backgrounds. Inclusion of NLTWB reduces but does not eliminate disparities in adherence to recommended levels of PA.
"increasing physical activity as one of five priority intervention areas to reduce the impact of noncommunicable diseases, noting modification of the built environment to support habitual physical activity as a key focus area (Beaglehole et al. 2011). Engaging in active transport (AT) (i.e., walking and cycling for travel purposes) provides opportunities to habitually accumulate physical activity (Badland 2005), and those who engage in AT tend to be more active in duration and frequency than those who do not (Berrigan et al. 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prevalence of walking and cycling for transport is low, varying greatly across countries. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions related to walking and cycling for transport in different countries. Therefore it is challenging to prioritize appropriate built environment interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the strength and shape of the relationship between adults' neighborhood perceptions and walking and cycling for transport across diverse environments.
As part of the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult project, self-report data were taken from 13,745 adults (18 - 65 years) living in physically and socially diverse neighborhoods in 17 cities across 12 countries. Neighborhood perceptions were measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, and walking and cycling for transport were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form. Generalized additive mixed models were used to model walking or cycling for transport during the last seven days with neighborhood perceptions. Interactions by city were explored.
Walking for transport outcomes were significantly associated with perceived residential density, land use mix access, street connectivity, aesthetics, and safety. Any cycling for transport was significantly related to perceived land use mix access, street connectivity, infrastructure, aesthetics, safety, and perceived distance to destinations. Between-city differences existed for some attributes in relation to walking or cycling for transport.
Many perceived environmental attributes supported both cycling and walking; however highly walkable environments may not support cycling for transport. People appear to walk for transport despite safety concerns. These findings can guide the implementation of global health strategies.
Environmental Health Perspectives 07/2015; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409466 · 7.98 Impact Factor
"Limited research has addressed racial/ethnic differences in AC among adults, though a number of studies have noted different trends among youth traveling to school [66–68]. There is some evidence to suggest that there are differences in active transportation rates among adults [42, 57, 69] though there is little mode-specific information available. Other studies have indicated that rates of leisure time physical activity are lower in ethnic minority groups, and household or occupational activity is higher [70–74]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 ± 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC.
Journal of Environmental and Public Health 02/2013; 2013(7):242383. DOI:10.1155/2013/242383
"Residents of socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbour - hoods were significantly more likely to have reported walking for transport than residents of advantaged neighbourhoods , which is consistent with the findings of previous research ( Miles et al . , 2008 ; Cerin et al . 2009 ; Berrigan et al . , 2006 ; van Lenthe et al . , 2005 ) ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Residents of socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are more likely to walk for transport than their counterparts in advantaged neighbourhoods; however, the reasons for higher rates of transport walking in poorer neighbourhoods remain unclear. We investigated this issue using data from the HABITAT study of physical activity among 11,037 mid-aged residents of 200 neighbourhoods in Brisbane, Australia. Using a five-step mediation analysis and multilevel regression, we found that higher levels of walking for transport in disadvantaged neighbourhoods was associated with living in a built environment more conducive to walking (i.e. greater street connectivity and land use mix) and residents of these neighbourhoods having more limited access to a motor vehicle. The health benefits that accrue to residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods as a result of their higher levels of walking for transport might help offset the negative effects of less healthy behaviours (e.g. smoking, poor diet), thus serving to contain or reduce neighbourhood inequalities in chronic disease.
Health & Place 11/2012; 19C(1):89-98. DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.10.008 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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