Plasma Protein β-2-Glycoprotein 1 Mediates Interaction between the Anti-tumor Monoclonal Antibody 3G4 and Anionic Phospholipids on Endothelial Cells
ABSTRACT A promising target on tumor vasculature is phosphatidylserine (PS), an anionic phospholipid that resides exclusively on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane of resting mammalian cells. We have shown previously that PS becomes exposed on the surface of endothelial cells (EC) in solid tumors. To target PS on tumor vasculature, the murine monoclonal antibody 3G4 was developed. 3G4 localizes to tumor vasculature, inhibits tumor growth, and enhances anti-tumor chemotherapies without toxicity in mice. A chimeric version of 3G4 is in clinical trials. In this study, we investigated the basis for the interaction between 3G4 and EC with surface-exposed PS. We demonstrate that antibody binding to PS is dependent on plasma protein beta-2-glycoprotein 1 (beta2GP1). beta2GP1 is a 50-kDa glycoprotein that binds weakly to anionic phospholipids under physiological conditions. We show that 3G4 enhances binding of beta2GP1 to EC induced to expose PS. We also show that divalent 3G4-beta2GP1 complexes are required for enhanced binding, since 3G4 Fab' fragments do not bind EC with exposed PS. Finally, we demonstrate that an artificial dimeric beta2GP1 construct binds to EC with exposed PS in the absence of 3G4, confirming that antibody binding is mediated by dimerization of beta2GP1. Together, these data indicate that 3G4 targets tumor EC by increasing the avidity of beta2GP1 for anionic phospholipids through formation of multivalent 3G4-beta2GP1 complexes.
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ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of nonclassical export of signal peptide-less proteins remain insufficiently understood. Here, we demonstrate that stress-induced unconventional export of FGF1, a potent and ubiquitously expressed mitogenic and proangiogenic protein, is associated with and dependent on the formation of membrane blebs and localized cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS). In addition, we found that the differentiation of promonocytic cells results in massive FGF1 release, which also correlates with membrane blebbing and exposure of PS. These findings indicate that the externalization of acidic phospholipids could be used as a pharmacological target to regulate the availability of FGF1 in the organism.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 03/2012; 113(3):956-66. DOI:10.1002/jcb.23425 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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