Oropharyngeal aspiration of a silica suspension produces a superior model of silicosis in the mouse when compared to intratracheal instillation.
ABSTRACT Instillation of crystalline silica into the lungs of mice is a common experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. Typically, a suspension of silica in saline is injected into the trachea via intubation or surgical tracheostomy. These techniques require a high degree of technical skill, have a lengthy training period, and can suffer from a high failure rate. In oropharyngeal aspiration, a droplet of liquid is placed in the animal's mouth while simultaneously holding its tongue (to block the swallow reflex) and pinching its nose shut, forcing it to breathe through its mouth, aspirating the liquid. To determine whether oropharyngeal aspiration (OA) could replace intratracheal instillation (IT) in a model of silica-induced fibrosis, a comparison was performed. Crystalline silica was introduced into the lungs of male C57BL/6 mice by the IT or OA procedure, and the resulting inflammation and fibrosis was assessed after 3 weeks. IT and OA instillation of silica both resulted in neutrophilic inflammation and fibrotic changes, including interstitial fibrosis and dense fibrotic foci. Mice treated via IT demonstrated a few large lesions proximal to conducting airways with little involvement of the distal parenchyma and large interanimal variability. In contrast, OA resulted in a diffuse pathology with numerous fibrotic foci distributed throughout the lung parenchyma, which is more representative of human fibrotic lung disease. OA- but not IT-treated mice exhibited significantly increased lung collagen content. Furthermore, the interanimal variability within the OA group was significantly less than in the IT group. Oropharyngeal aspiration should be considered as an alternative to intratracheal instillation of silica and other particulates in studies of respiratory toxicity and lung disease.
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ABSTRACT: There are many communities around the world that are exposed to high levels of particulate matter <10 µm (PM10) of geogenic (earth derived) origin. Mineral dusts in the occupational setting are associated with poor lung health, however very little is known about the impact of heterogeneous community derived particles. We have preliminary evidence to suggest that the concentration of iron (Fe) may be associated with the lung inflammatory response to geogenic PM10. We aimed to determine which physico-chemical characteristics of community sampled geogenic PM10 are associated with adverse lung responses. We collected geogenic PM10 from four towns in the arid regions of Western Australia. Adult female BALB/c mice were exposed to 100 µg of particles and assessed for inflammatory and lung function responses 6 hours, 24 hours and 7 days post-exposure. We assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles and correlated these with lung outcomes in the mice using principal components analysis and multivariate linear regression. Geogenic particles induced an acute inflammatory response that peaked 6 hours post-exposure and a deficit in lung mechanics 7 days post-exposure. This deficit in lung mechanics was positively associated with the concentration of Fe and particle size variability and inversely associated with the concentration of Si. The lung response to geogenic PM10 is complex and highly dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles. In particular, the concentration of Fe in the particles may be a key indicator of the potential population health consequences for inhaling geogenic PM10.PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e90609. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activins are members of the TGF-Ss superfamily of growth factors. First, we identified by expression array screening that activin-B and follistatin are upregulated in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Next, we wanted to clarify their specific role in lung fibrosis formation.BMC Pulmonary Medicine 11/2014; 14(1):170. · 2.49 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: A probabilistic model of emphysema based on granulometry analysis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Emphysema is associated with the destruction of lung parenchyma, resulting in abnormal enlargement of airspaces. Accurate quantification of emphysema is required for a better understanding of the disease as well as for the assessment of drugs and treatments. In the present study, a novel method for emphysema charac-terization from histological lung images is proposed. Elastase-induced mice were used to simulate the effect of emphysema on the lungs. A database composed of 50 normal and 50 emphysematous lung patches of size 512 x 512 pixels was used in our experiments. The purpose is to automatically identify those patches containing emphysematous tissue. The proposed approach is based on the use of granulometry analysis, which provides the pattern spectrum describing the distribution of airspaces in the lung region under evaluation. The profile of the spectrum was summarized by a set of statistical features. A logistic regression model was then used to estimate the probability for a patch to be emphysematous from this feature set. An accuracy of 87% was achieved by our method in the classification between normal and emphysematous samples. This result shows the utility of our granulometry-based method to quantify the lesions due to emphysema.IX International Seminar on Medical Information Processing and Analysis; 01/2013