Oropharyngeal aspiration of a silica suspension produces a superior model of silicosis in the mouse when compared to intratracheal instillation
ABSTRACT Instillation of crystalline silica into the lungs of mice is a common experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. Typically, a suspension of silica in saline is injected into the trachea via intubation or surgical tracheostomy. These techniques require a high degree of technical skill, have a lengthy training period, and can suffer from a high failure rate. In oropharyngeal aspiration, a droplet of liquid is placed in the animal's mouth while simultaneously holding its tongue (to block the swallow reflex) and pinching its nose shut, forcing it to breathe through its mouth, aspirating the liquid. To determine whether oropharyngeal aspiration (OA) could replace intratracheal instillation (IT) in a model of silica-induced fibrosis, a comparison was performed. Crystalline silica was introduced into the lungs of male C57BL/6 mice by the IT or OA procedure, and the resulting inflammation and fibrosis was assessed after 3 weeks. IT and OA instillation of silica both resulted in neutrophilic inflammation and fibrotic changes, including interstitial fibrosis and dense fibrotic foci. Mice treated via IT demonstrated a few large lesions proximal to conducting airways with little involvement of the distal parenchyma and large interanimal variability. In contrast, OA resulted in a diffuse pathology with numerous fibrotic foci distributed throughout the lung parenchyma, which is more representative of human fibrotic lung disease. OA- but not IT-treated mice exhibited significantly increased lung collagen content. Furthermore, the interanimal variability within the OA group was significantly less than in the IT group. Oropharyngeal aspiration should be considered as an alternative to intratracheal instillation of silica and other particulates in studies of respiratory toxicity and lung disease.
- SourceAvailable from: Silvestre Vicent
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- "as previously described (Vicent et al., 2008). Oropharyngeal aspiration was performed according to Lakatos et al. (2006) "
ABSTRACT: Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) is the most common lung cancer subtype and presents a high mortality rate. Clinical recurrence is often associated with the emergence of metastasis and treatment resistance. The purpose of this study was to identify genes with high prometastatic activity which could potentially account for treatment resistance. Global transcriptomic profiling was performed by robust microarray analysis in highly metastatic subpopulations. Extensive in vitro and in vivo functional studies were achieved by overexpression and by silencing gene expression. We identified the small GTPase RHOB as a gene that promotes early and late stages of metastasis in ADC. Gene silencing of RHOB prevented metastatic activity in a systemic murine model of bone metastasis. These effects were highly dependent on tumor-host interactions. Clinical analysis revealed a marked association between high RHOB levels and poor survival. Consistently, high RHOB levels promote metastasis progression, taxane-chemoresistance, and contribute to the survival advantage to γ-irradiation. We postulate that RHOB belongs to a novel class of "genes of recurrence" that have a dual role in metastasis and treatment resistance.Molecular oncology 11/2013; 8(2). DOI:10.1016/j.molonc.2013.11.001 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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- "Note how the lung of the elastase-treated animal appears darker than the control lung. instilled with 6 units per 30 g of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE, EC134GI, EPC, MI, USA), as described in a previously published protocol . Control animals were instilled with a saline solution. "
ABSTRACT: Objective. To define the sensitivity of microcomputed tomography- (micro-CT-) derived descriptors for the quantification of lung damage caused by elastase instillation. Materials and Methods. The lungs of 30 elastase treated and 30 control A/J mice were analyzed 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours and 7 and 17 days after elastase instillation using (i) breath-hold-gated micro-CT, (ii) pulmonary function tests (PFTs), (iii) RT-PCR for RNA cytokine expression, and (iv) histomorphometry. For the latter, an automatic, parallel software toolset was implemented that computes the airspace enlargement descriptors: mean linear intercept (L(m)) and weighted means of airspace diameters (D(0), D(1), and D(2)). A Support Vector Classifier was trained and tested based on three nonhistological descriptors using D(2) as ground truth. Results. D(2) detected statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) between the groups at all time points. Furthermore, D(2) at 1 hour (24 hours) was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than D(2) at 24 hours (7 days). The classifier trained on the micro-CT-derived descriptors achieves an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.95 well above the others (PFTS AUC = 0.71; cytokine AUC = 0.88). Conclusion. Micro-CT-derived descriptors are more sensitive than the other methods compared, to detect in vivo early signs of the disease.International Journal of Biomedical Imaging 11/2012; 2012:734734. DOI:10.1155/2012/734734
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- "Rats were placed in the covered jar became anesthetized after five seconds of gaseous exposure to Trifluralin, and remained anesthetized for about 30 seconds. During this time, bleomycin or its vehicle (saline) was administered oropharyngeally in a 400 μL solution (8 U/kg body weight) to half of the rats in each respective group, according to a previously published method . The tongue was secured by tissue forceps in such a way as to prevent swallowing, and the rats aspirated the bleomycin solution that was administered via pipette into the oral cavity. "
ABSTRACT: Bleomycin, a widely used antineoplastic agent, has been associated with severe pulmonary toxicity, primarily fibrosis. Previous work has shown a reduction in bleomycin-induced lung pathology by long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Treatment by short-chain omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, found in dietary flaxseed oil may also reduce lung fibrosis, as previously evidenced in the kidney. To test this hypothesis, 72 rats were divided between diets receiving either 15% (w/w) flaxseed oil or 15% (w/w) corn oil (control). These groups were further divided to receive either bleomycin or vehicle (saline) via an oropharyngeal delivery, rather than the traditional intratracheal instillation. Lungs were harvested at 2, 7, and 21 days after bleomycin or saline treatment. Animals receiving flaxseed oil showed a delay in edema formation (P = 0.025) and a decrease in inflammatory cell infiltrate and vasculitis (P = 0.04 and 0.007, resp.). At days 7 and 21, bleomycin produced a reduction in pulmonary arterial lumen patency (P = 0.01), but not in rats that were treated with flaxseed oil. Bleomycin-treated rats receiving flaxseed oil had reduced pulmonary septal thickness (P = 0.01), signifying decreased fibrosis. Dietary flaxseed oil may prove beneficial against the side effects of this highly effective chemotherapeutic agent and its known toxic effects on the lung.08/2012; 2012:457031. DOI:10.1155/2012/457031