Identification of a c-kit exon 8 internal tandem duplication in a feline mast cell tumor case and its favorable response to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate.
ABSTRACT The gain-of-function mutations within c-kit, a protooncogene encoding KIT, induce constitutive ligand-independent kinase activation and are important for the pathogenesis of mast cell proliferative disease in humans as well as in dogs. Despite the clinical importance of feline mast cell tumors, no mutation has been shown within the c-kit gene in cats. In the present report, we analyzed the c-kit nucleotide sequence in the case of a cat that showed systemic mastocytosis and mastocytemia. Within the c-kit cDNA prepared from the malignant mast cells, we identified an 12-bp internal tandem duplication at the region corresponding to exon 8, resulting in a four amino acid insertion between residues Thr418 and His419 within the fifth immunoglobulin-like domain of KIT. The cat underwent therapy with the kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) at a dose of 10mg/kg. The tumor masses greatly responded and were undetectable after 5 weeks of treatment. Correspondingly, the number of mast cells in the peripheral blood was markedly reduced. It is, therefore, considered that the internal tandem duplication within the domain contributes to the neoplastic transformation of mast cells in the cat by increasing KIT phosphorylation.
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ABSTRACT: Activating mutations in RAS and receptor tyrosine kinases such as KIT and FLT3 are hypothesized to cooperate with chimeric transcription factors in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To test this hypothesis, we genotyped 150 pediatric AML samples for mutations in KIT (exons 8, 17), NRAS and KRAS (exons 1, 2) and FLT3/ITD. This is the largest cohort of pediatric AML patients reported thus far screened for all four mutations. Of the children with AML, 40% had a mutation in KIT (11.3%), RAS (18%) or FLT3/ITD (11.1%), and 70% of cases of core-binding factor (CBF) leukemia were associated with a mutation of KIT or RAS. Mutations in RAS or FLT3/ITD were frequently found in association with a normal karyotype. Patients with a FLT3/ITD mutation had a significantly worse clinical outcome. However, the presence of a KIT or RAS mutation did not significantly influence clinical outcome. We demonstrate that KIT exon 8 mutations result in constitutive ligand-independent kinase activation that can be inhibited by clinically relevant concentrations of imatinib. Our results demonstrate that abnormalities of signal transduction pathways are frequent in pediatric AML. Future clinical studies are needed to determine whether selective targeting of these abnormalities will improve treatment results.Leukemia 10/2005; 19(9):1536-42. · 10.16 Impact Factor
Article: Stem cell factor and hematopoiesis.Blood 09/1997; 90(4):1345-64. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DNA from 110 adult de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients exhibiting either inv(16) (n = 63) or t(8;21) (n = 47) was screened for mutations in the c-KIT (exon 8 and Asp816) and FLT3 (ITD and Asp835) genes. c-KIT exon 8 mutations were found in 15/63 (23.8%) inv(16) patients and 1/47 (2.1%) t(8;21) patients. c-KIT Asp816 mutations were present in 5/63 (7.9%) inv(16) AML and 5/47 (10.6%) t(8;21) AML. FLT3 mutations were identified in five patients (7.9%) with inv(16) and three patients (5.6%) with t(8;21) AML. All mutations were mutually exclusive; 40% of inv(16) AML patients possessed either a c-KIT or FLT3 mutation. c-KIT exon 8 mutations were shown to be a significant factor adversely affecting relapse rate.British Journal of Haematology 07/2003; 121(5):775-7. · 4.94 Impact Factor