Procedural memory predicts social skills in persons with schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Despite a growing number of studies that have investigated the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial outcome in schizophrenia, no studies have looked at the relationship between procedural memory and social skills measures in schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to investigate whether procedural memory, often preserved in schizophrenia, could predict nonverbal social skills in chronic patients with schizophrenia. Fourteen outpatients with schizophrenia participated in our study. Procedural memory was evaluated using the Mirror Reading Test, and nonverbal and verbal social skills were evaluated using a structured role play test. As predicted, there was a significant positive correlation between the learning index of the Mirror Reading Test and nonverbal skills (Spearman rho=0.559, p = 0.038), but not for verbal communication skills or processing skills. Although preliminary, these results provide the first evidence of an association between procedural memory and nonverbal social skills in patients with schizophrenia.
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ABSTRACT: Our recent microarray study reported altered mRNA expression of several low density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRP) associated with the first 4 years following diagnosis with schizophrenia. Whilst this finding is novel, apolipoprotein E (APOE), which mediates its activity through LRPs, has been reported by several studies to be altered in brains of subjects with schizophrenia. We used qPCR to measure the expression of LRP2, LRP4, LRP6, LRP8, LRP10 and LRP12 mRNA in Brodmann's area (BA) 46 of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in 15 subjects with short duration of illness schizophrenia (SDS) and 15 pair matched controls. We also used Western blotting to measure APOE protein expression in BA46 from these subjects. Amongst the LRPs examined, LRP10 expression was significantly increased (P = 0.03) and LRP12 was significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in SDS. APOE protein expression was also increased in SDS (P = 0.01). No other marker examined in this study was altered with diagnosis. Our data supports a role for distinct members of the LRP family in the pathology of schizophrenia and adds weight to the hypothesis that aberrant apolipoprotein signaling is involved in the early stages of schizophrenia.Frontiers in Psychiatry 07/2010; 1:19. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2010.00019
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies investigating feedback-driven reinforcement learning in patients with schizophrenia have provided mixed results. In this study, we explored the clinical predictors of reward and punishment learning using a probabilistic classification learning task. Patients with schizophrenia (n=40) performed similarly to healthy controls (n=30) on the classification learning task. However, more severe negative and general symptoms were associated with lower reward-learning performance, whereas poorer general psychosocial functioning was correlated with both lower reward- and punishment-learning performances. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that general psychosocial functioning was the only significant predictor of reinforcement learning performance when education, antipsychotic dose, and positive, negative and general symptoms were included in the analysis. These results suggest a close relationship between reinforcement learning and general psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia.Schizophrenia Research 04/2011; 127(1-3):131-6. DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2010.07.028 · 4.43 Impact Factor