Oncogenic Kit signaling and therapeutic intervention in a mouse model of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

Department of Developmental Biology, Computational Biology Center, and Molecular Cytology Facility, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 09/2006; 103(34):12843-8. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0511076103
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Kit receptor-activating mutations are critical in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). We investigated mechanisms of oncogenic Kit signaling and the consequences of therapeutic intervention in a mouse model of human GIST. Treatment of GIST mice with imatinib decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the tumor. Analysis of tumor tissue from imatinib-treated mice showed diminished phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling suggesting that oncogenic Kit signaling critically contributes to the translational response in GIST. Treatment with RAD001 (everolimus), an mTOR inhibitor, diminished the translational response and cell proliferation in tumor lesions, pointing to mTOR inhibition as a therapeutic approach for imatinib-resistant GIST. Analysis of RNA expression profiles in GIST lesions with and without imatinib treatment showed changes in expression of IFN-inducible genes and cell cycle regulators. These results convincingly show that KitV558Delta/+ mice represent a unique faithful mouse model of human familial GIST, and they demonstrate the utility of these mice for preclinical investigations and to elucidate oncogenic signaling mechanisms by using genetic approaches and targeted pharmacological intervention.

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    ABSTRACT: Our previous study demonstrated NVP-AUY922, a HSP90AA1 inhibitor, could enhance mutant KIT degradation in gastrointestinal stroma tumor (GIST) cells through both proteasome- and autophagy-mediated pathways. Herein, we showed rapamycin, a MTOR inhibitor and autophagy inducer, could reduce total and phospho-KIT expression levels and enhance apoptosis in imatinib-resistant GIST cells. The involvement of autophagy in rapamycin-induced KIT downregulation was further confirmed by co-localization of KIT and autophagosome, and partial recovery of KIT expression level by either siRNA-mediated BECN1 and ATG5 silencing or autophagy inhibitors after rapamycin. Rapamycin and NVP-AUY922 synergistically inhibited GIST cells growth in vitro. The combination of low-dose NVP-AUY922 with rapamycin had comparable effects on reducing KIT expression, increasing MAP1LC3B puncta and tumor necrosis, and inhibiting tumor growth as high-dose NVP-AUY922 did in GIST430 xenograft model. Our results suggest the addition of a MTOR inhibitor may reduce NVP-AUY922 dose requirement and potentially improve its therapeutic index in mutant KIT-expressing GISTs.
    Oncotarget 10/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common human sarcoma and a model of targeted molecular therapy. GIST depends on oncogenic KIT signaling and responds to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. However, imatinib is rarely curative. We hypothesized that PLX3397, which inhibits KIT and CSF1R, would be more efficacious than imatinib in GIST by also depleting tumor-associated macrophages, which are generally thought to support tumor growth. We treated KitV558del/+ mice that develop GIST or mice with subcutaneous human GIST xenografts with imatinib or PLX3397 and analyzed tumor weight, cellular composition, histology, molecular signaling, and fibrosis. In vitro assays on human GIST cell lines were also performed. PLX3397 was more effective than imatinib in reducing tumor weight and cellularity in both KitV558del/+ murine GIST and human GIST xenografts. The superiority of PLX3397 did not depend on depletion of tumor-associated macrophages, since adding CSF1R inhibition did not improve the effects of imatinib. Instead, PLX3397 was a more potent KIT inhibitor than imatinib in vitro. PLX3397 therapy also induced substantial intratumoral fibrosis, which impaired the subsequent delivery of small molecules. PLX3397 therapy has greater efficacy than imatinib in pre-clinical GIST models and warrants study in GIST patients. The resultant intratumoral fibrosis may represent one of the barriers to achieving complete tumor eradication.
    Clinical Cancer Research 02/2014; 20(9). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-3033 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with RTK inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan) the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other "entities," have been discovered (e.g., succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, and mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway). The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.
    11/2014; 1:43. DOI:10.3389/fmed.2014.00043

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