Risk factors for subclinical mastitis among HIV-infected and uninfected women in Lusaka, Zambia

University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 3.13). 10/2006; 20(5):379-91. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2006.00746.x
Source: PubMed


Subclinical mastitis, defined as raised milk sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio, is associated with poor infant growth and, among HIV-infected women, with increased milk HIV viral load. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, in order to investigate the relative importance of several potential causes of subclinical mastitis: maternal infection, micronutrient deficiencies and poor lactation practice. Women (198 HIV-infected, 189 HIV-uninfected) were recruited at 34 weeks' gestation and followed up to 16 weeks postpartum for collection of information on their health, their infant's health, infant growth and infant feeding practices. Milk samples were collected from each breast at 11 postpartum visits and blood at recruitment and 6 weeks postpartum. The geometric mean milk Na/K ratio and the proportion of women with Na/K ratio > 1.0 in one or both breasts were significantly higher among HIV-infected than among uninfected women. Other factors associated with the higher mean Na/K ratio in univariable analyses were primiparity, high maternal alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) at 6 weeks, maternal overall morbidity and specific breast symptoms, preterm delivery, low infant weight or length, infant thrush and non-exclusive breast feeding. In multivariable analyses, primiparity, preterm delivery, breast symptoms, HIV status and raised AGP were associated with the raised Na/K ratio. Thus the main factors associated with subclinical mastitis that are amenable to intervention are poor maternal overall health and breast health. The impact of improved postpartum health care, especially management of maternal infections and especially in primiparous women, on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and its consequences requires investigation.

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    • "The prenatal and early postpartum periods may be key for improving maternal and, consequently, infant health. Subclinical mastitis was seen from early lactation and was associated with slower infant growth (present study) and poor maternal health (Kasonka et al. 2006). In univariate analyses low weight at 6 weeks was associated with cessation of EBF shortly thereafter. "
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    ABSTRACT: Parental HIV infection may affect even those exposed children who remain uninfected. We investigated early growth, an indicator of overall health, of infants born to Zambian mothers recruited for a study of breastfeeding and postpartum health. HIV-infected and uninfected women in Lusaka were followed regularly from late pregnancy to 16 weeks postpartum. Infant weight and length were measured at birth, 6 and 16 weeks. Infant HIV status could not be specifically determined in this cohort so comparisons were between all infants of HIV-uninfected mothers (n = 184) and those infants of HIV-infected mothers who were known to be alive and showed no clinical evidence of HIV infection at age 2-4 years (n = 85). Most infants were exclusively or predominantly breastfed until 16 weeks. At all time points infants of HIV-infected mothers tended to have lower weight and length standard deviation (Z) scores (significant for weight at 6 weeks; P = 0.04), even after adjustment for their lower gestational age at birth, compared with infants of uninfected mothers. In multivariate analyses the major factors affecting weight or length at 6 or 16 weeks of age were birth weight or length, and maternal subclinical mastitis, primiparity and weight during pregnancy. Early growth of infants of HIV-infected mothers is less than that of uninfected mothers, in part associated with subclinical mastitis, and this effect cannot be overcome with intensive support of mothers to follow international recommendations regarding exclusive breastfeeding.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 06/2007; 12(5):594-602. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2007.01836.x · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple micronutrient supplementation of Nepalese women during pregnancy is associated with a significant increase in birth weight. We tested the hypothesis that improved birth weight in infants of mothers supplemented with micronutrients is associated with a decrease in inflammatory responses and an increase in the production of T helper 1 cells and T helper 2 cells. The study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of 15 micronutrients, compared with iron-folate supplementation (control), given during pregnancy with the aim of increasing birth weight. Blood samples were collected at 32 wk of gestation, 12-20 wk after supplementation began, for the measurement of inflammatory markers. Breast-milk samples were collected 1 mo after delivery for the measurement of the ratio of milk sodium to potassium (milk Na:K). In an opportunistically selected subgroup of 70 women, mitogen-stimulated cytokine production was measured ex vivo in whole blood. Blood eosinophils; plasma concentrations of the acute phase reactants C-reactive protein, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP), neopterin, and ferritin; milk Na:K; and the production of interleukin (IL) 10, IL-4, interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in whole blood did not differ significantly between the supplemented and control groups. Plasma C-reactive protein and AGP were higher in women who had a preterm delivery, and AGP was higher in women who delivered a low-birth-weight term infant than in women who delivered a normal-birth-weight term infant. The results indicate an association between systemic inflammation in late pregnancy and compromised delivery outcome in Nepalese women but do not support the hypothesis that multiple micronutrient supplementation changes cytokine production or inflammatory markers.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2006; 84(5):1086-92. · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mastitis has been identified as a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 through breast-feeding. It is unclear whether this association is mediated by increased cell-free virus (CFV) versus cell-associated virus (CAV) HIV shedding in breast milk. We examined the risk of MTCT associated with subclinical mastitis and the relation between mastitis and CFV or CAV shedding in breast milk. Fifty-nine women who transmitted HIV through breast-feeding (cases) were individually matched to 59 nontransmitting controls nested in a cohort from Tanzania. For each case, we selected a milk specimen obtained before the infant's first positive test to quantify sodium (Na) and potassium (K) and measure CFV and CAV concentrations. Controls were matched on the child's age at the time of sample collection. Women with a breast milk Na/K ratio suggestive of mastitis (>1.0) had an 11-fold greater odds of transmission (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2 to 98.1), compared to women with a Na/K <or=0.6, after adjusting for maternal CD4 cell count and vitamin A supplementation. Although mastitis was positively related to both CFV and CAV shedding in breast milk, only the association with the latter was strong and statistically significant. Increased cell-associated HIV-1 shedding in breast milk could mediate the association between mastitis and MTCT.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 01/2008; 46(5):651-4. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31815b2db2 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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