Risk factors for subclinical mastitis among HIV-infected and uninfected women in Lusaka, Zambia.
ABSTRACT Subclinical mastitis, defined as raised milk sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio, is associated with poor infant growth and, among HIV-infected women, with increased milk HIV viral load. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, in order to investigate the relative importance of several potential causes of subclinical mastitis: maternal infection, micronutrient deficiencies and poor lactation practice. Women (198 HIV-infected, 189 HIV-uninfected) were recruited at 34 weeks' gestation and followed up to 16 weeks postpartum for collection of information on their health, their infant's health, infant growth and infant feeding practices. Milk samples were collected from each breast at 11 postpartum visits and blood at recruitment and 6 weeks postpartum. The geometric mean milk Na/K ratio and the proportion of women with Na/K ratio > 1.0 in one or both breasts were significantly higher among HIV-infected than among uninfected women. Other factors associated with the higher mean Na/K ratio in univariable analyses were primiparity, high maternal alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) at 6 weeks, maternal overall morbidity and specific breast symptoms, preterm delivery, low infant weight or length, infant thrush and non-exclusive breast feeding. In multivariable analyses, primiparity, preterm delivery, breast symptoms, HIV status and raised AGP were associated with the raised Na/K ratio. Thus the main factors associated with subclinical mastitis that are amenable to intervention are poor maternal overall health and breast health. The impact of improved postpartum health care, especially management of maternal infections and especially in primiparous women, on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and its consequences requires investigation.
SourceAvailable from: Philippe Van de Perre[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: By compensating for the relative immaturity of the neonatal immune system, breast milk and breast-feeding prevent deaths in children. Nevertheless, transmission of HIV-1 through breast-feeding is responsible for more than half of new pediatric HIV infections. Recent studies of possible HIV-1 reservoirs in breast milk shed new light on features that influence HIV-1 transmission through breast-feeding. The particular characteristics of breast milk CD4(+) T cells that distinguish them from circulating blood lymphocytes (high frequency of cell activation and expression of memory and mucosal homing markers) facilitate the establishment of HIV-1 replication. Breast milk also contains a plethora of factors with anti-infectious, immunomodulatory, or anti-inflammatory properties that can regulate both viral replication and infant susceptibility. In addition, CD8(+) T lymphocytes, macrophages, and epithelial cells in breast milk can alter the dynamics of HIV-1 transmission. Even during efficient antiretroviral therapy, a residual stable, CD4(+) T cell-associated reservoir of HIV-1 is persistently present in breast milk, a likely source of infection. Only prophylactic treatment in infants--ideally with a long-acting drug, administered for the entire duration of breast-feeding--is likely to protect HIV-exposed babies against all forms of HIV transmission from breast milk, including cell-to-cell viral transfer.Science translational medicine 07/2012; 4(143):143sr3. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003327 · 14.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between breastfeeding patterns, markers of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, and woman's breast pathology. Secondary data analysis from a randomized breastfeeding trial including 947 HIV-infected women (n = 5982 visits) from breastfeeding initiation until 6 months postpartum; 1 month after breastfeeding cessation; or loss to follow-up or death. Generalized estimating equations assessed the effects of breastfeeding pattern and maternal HIV status on breast pathology. One hundred ninety women (20.1%) had a breast problem; 86 (9.1%) had mastitis; and 31 (3.3%) had abscess. After confounder adjustment, nonexclusively breastfeeding women had an increased risk of breast problems (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.95) and mastitis (odds ratio, 2.87, 95% confidence interval, 1.69-4.88) compared with exclusive breastfeeders. Women with a CD4 count less than 200 cells/μL tended to have an increased risk of abscess. Nonexclusive breastfeeding significantly increased the risk of breast pathology. Exclusive breastfeeding is not only optimal for infant health but it also benefits mothers by reducing breast problems.American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 06/2011; 205(4):344.e1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2011.06.021 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts < 350 cells/μL (P- interaction for treatment × CD4+ T-cell count = 0.10). Supplementation of HIV-infected women with vitamins increased the risk of subclinical mastitis.Journal of Nutrition 10/2010; 140(10):1788-92. DOI:10.3945/jn.110.122713 · 4.23 Impact Factor