Risk factors for subclinical mastitis among HIV-infected and uninfected women in Lusaka, Zambia.
ABSTRACT Subclinical mastitis, defined as raised milk sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio, is associated with poor infant growth and, among HIV-infected women, with increased milk HIV viral load. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, in order to investigate the relative importance of several potential causes of subclinical mastitis: maternal infection, micronutrient deficiencies and poor lactation practice. Women (198 HIV-infected, 189 HIV-uninfected) were recruited at 34 weeks' gestation and followed up to 16 weeks postpartum for collection of information on their health, their infant's health, infant growth and infant feeding practices. Milk samples were collected from each breast at 11 postpartum visits and blood at recruitment and 6 weeks postpartum. The geometric mean milk Na/K ratio and the proportion of women with Na/K ratio > 1.0 in one or both breasts were significantly higher among HIV-infected than among uninfected women. Other factors associated with the higher mean Na/K ratio in univariable analyses were primiparity, high maternal alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) at 6 weeks, maternal overall morbidity and specific breast symptoms, preterm delivery, low infant weight or length, infant thrush and non-exclusive breast feeding. In multivariable analyses, primiparity, preterm delivery, breast symptoms, HIV status and raised AGP were associated with the raised Na/K ratio. Thus the main factors associated with subclinical mastitis that are amenable to intervention are poor maternal overall health and breast health. The impact of improved postpartum health care, especially management of maternal infections and especially in primiparous women, on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and its consequences requires investigation.
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ABSTRACT: Background Early growth and health of HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children is poorer than that of their HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) counterparts but there is little information about longer term effects of early HIV exposure. We previously recruited two cohorts of HEU and HUU Zambian infants and documented the poorer infant growth and health of the HEU compared to the HUU children. We followed up HEU and HUU children from these cohorts when they were school-aged and compared their growth, health, biochemical markers of acute or chronic disease, and school grades. Methods We recruited 111 HEU and 279 HUU children aged 6–12 years. We measured anthropometry, determined health by questionnaire and clinical examination, viewed the child’s most recent school report, and measured blood pressure, haemoglobin (Hb), HbA1c, glucose, cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results Anthropometric measures were lower among HEU than HUU children, significantly so for hip circumference (age- and sex-adjusted difference −1.74 cm; 95 % confidence interval (CI) -3.24, −0.24; P = 0.023) and mid-upper-arm circumference (adjusted difference −0.63 cm, 95 % CI −1.23, −0.04; P = 0.037) and with borderline effects for body mass index, thigh circumference and subscapular skinfolds. HEU children had significantly lower total, trunk, and limb fat percentages. All anthropometric and body composition differences became non-significant after adjustment for sociodemographic variables which differed between HEU and HUU children. More HEU than HUU children reported minor illnesses and were prescribed medication at the time of visit. There were no differences in biochemical markers between groups. HEU children had lower math grades than HUU children even after adjustment for socioeconomic variables. Conclusions Although HEU children were smaller and had lower percent fat than HUU children, this appeared to be due mainly to their poorer socioeconomic status. Reasons for lower school grades require further research. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0386-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.BMC Pediatrics 06/2015; 15. DOI:10.1186/s12887-015-0386-8 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The increasing success of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programmes means that in Africa, very large numbers of HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU) children are being born. Any health problems that these children may have will thus be of enormous public health importance, but to date have been largely neglected. There is some evidence that HIV-EU African children are at increased risk of mortality, morbidity and slower early growth than their HIV-unexposed counterparts. A likely major cause of this impaired health is less exposure to breast milk as mothers are either less able to breastfeed or stop breastfeeding early to protect their infant from HIV infection. Other contributing factors are parental illness or death resulting in reduced care of the children, increased exposure to other infections and possibly exposure to antiretroviral drugs. A broad approach for psychosocial support of HIV-affected families is needed to improve health of HIV-EU children. High quality programmatic research is needed to determine how to deliver such care.Tropical Medicine & International Health 02/2009; 14(3):276-87. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02220.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about mothers' perspectives and experiences of early breast-feeding cessation as a strategy to reduce postnatal HIV transmission in rural, resource-constrained settings. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDI) with 15 HIV-positive breast-feeding mothers of infants aged 3-5 mo about their plans for feeding their infants after age 6 mo. We also conducted IDI with 12 HIV-positive mothers who intended to stop breast-feeding after receiving their infant's HIV-PCR negative test result at age 6 mo. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were conducted with the same 12 mothers and 16 HIV-negative or status unknown mothers who were breast-feeding their 6- to 9-mo-old infants. Of the 12 mothers who intended to stop breast-feeding, 11 did so by 9 mo. Median energy intake (percent requirement) was 1382 kJ (54%) among weaned infants compared with 2234 kJ (87%) among breast-feeding infants. Median intakes were <67% of the recommended levels for 9 and 7 of the 12 micronutrients assessed for weaned and breast-feeding infants, respectively. Factors facilitating early breast-feeding cessation were mothers' knowledge about HIV transmission, family support, and disclosure of their HIV status; food unavailability was the primary barrier. HIV-positive mothers in resource-constrained settings may be so motivated to protect their child from HIV that they stop breast-feeding early even when they cannot provide an adequate replacement diet. As reflected in the new World Health Organization guidance, HIV-positive mothers should continue breastfeeding their infants beyond 6 mo if replacement feeding is still not acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe.Journal of Nutrition 03/2008; 138(2):351-7. · 4.23 Impact Factor