Association between HIV Type 1-specific T cell responses and CD4+ T cell counts or CD4+:CD8+ T cell ratios in HIV Type 1 subtype B infection in China.
ABSTRACT CD4+ T cell counts and CD4+:CD8+ T cell ratios represent key determinants of HIV disease progression and infectivity. However, the relationship between the HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response and these determinants has not been elucidated for all HIV-1B and HIV-1C proteins. In the present study, virusspecific T cell responses to HIV-1B and HIV-1C proteins were analyzed with interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) enzyme- linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays using synthetic overlapping peptides corresponding to naturally occurring HIV-1B and HIV-1C consensus sequences. For Gag/Gag p24/Gag p17, a correlation between T cell responses and CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1 clade B and clade C was seen: elevated T cell response resulted in higher CD4+ T cell production. A statistically significant correlation between the Pol-specific T cell response and CD4+ T cell counts was also found in HIV-1 subtype C. For all HIV-1B and HIV-1C proteins, a correlation between the HIV-1-specific T cell response and CD4+:CD8+ T cell ratios was found for Tat and Pol proteins. CD4+ T cell counts in patients with Tat and/or Rev T cell response were higher than in patients without Tat and/or Rev T cell response. We suggest that this correlation within HIV-1B and HIV-1C Gag p24/Gag p17 responses makes the Gag p24/Gag p17 region a potential vaccine candidate and that HIV-1-specific CTL epitopes toward Pol are important in controlling HIV-1 infection; we emphasize that future vaccination strategies should include these early antigens, Tat and Rev.
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ABSTRACT: CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses play an important role in controlling the replication of primate lentiviruses. Induction of these responses is a key objective for most current AIDS vaccine approaches. Despite a variety of approaches for measuring properties and activities of CTL, the functions responsible for controlling viral replication in vivo have not been clearly identified. Assays measuring CTL-mediated suppression of viral replication in vitro are beginning to be used as possible correlates of in vivo virus suppressive activity, but the utility and interpretive value of these assays are typically limited by properties of the cells that have been used. We investigated the capacity of SIV-specific CTL clones (effectors), immortalized by transduction with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), to suppress SIV replication in autologous hTERT immortalized CD4(+) T-cell clones (targets). Immortalized and non-immortalized SIV-specific effector cells showed IFN-gamma production and degranulation in response to viral antigen specific stimulation and significantly inhibited SIV(mac)239 replication (2 to 4 log decrease in viral RNA or cell-associated proviral DNA) (p<0.0005). Our in vitro assays of inhibition of viral replication, using T-cell clones as effectors and targets, provide a well-defined approach for evaluating possible mechanisms of CTL-mediated control of viral production which may involve direct killing of infected target cells and/or release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. The use of hTERT immortalized effector and target cells for such assays preserves relevant functional properties while providing a convenient, reproducible means of conducting studies over time.Virology 04/2008; 372(2):430-41. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2007.11.013 · 3.28 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Advances in Crystal Oscillator and Resonator Compensation18th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control. 1964; 02/1964
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ABSTRACT: The characterization of HIV-1-specific T cell responses in people infected with locally circulating HIV-1 strain will facilitate the development of HIV-1 vaccine. Sixty intravenous drug users infected with HIV-1 circulating recombinant form 07_BC (CRF07_BC), which has been spreading rapidly in western China from north to south, were recruited from Xinjiang, China to assess the HIV-1-specific T cell responses at single peptide level with overlapping peptides (OLP) covering the whole concensus clades B and C proteome. The median of the total magnitude and total number of OLPs recognized by CTL responses were 10925 SFC/million PBMC and 25 OLPs, respectively, when tested by clade C peptides, which was significantly higher than when tested by clade B peptides. The immunodominant regions, which cover 14% (58/413) of the HIV-1 proteome, are widely distributed throughout the HIV-1 proteome except in Tat, Vpu and Pol-PR, with Gag, Pol-RT, Pol-Int and Nef being most frequently targeted. The subdominant epitopes are mostly located in p24, Nef, integrase, Vpr and Vif. Of the responses directed to clade C OLPs, 61.75% (972/1574) can be observed when tested with corresponding clade B OLPs. However, Pol-PR and Vpu tend to be targeted in the clade B sequence rather than the clade C sequence, which is in line with the recombinant pattern of CRF07_BC. Stronger and broader CTL responses in subjects with CD4 cell counts ranging from 200 to 400/mm3 were observed when compared to those with less than 200/mm3 or more than 400/mm3, though there have been no significant correlations identified between the accumulative CTL responses or overall breadth and CD4 cell count or plasma viral load. This is the first study conducted to comprehensively address T cell responses in Chinese subjects infected with HIV-1 CRF07_BC in which subtle differences in cross-reactivity were observed, though similar patterns of overall immune responses were demonstrated with clade B infected populations. The immunodominant regions identified in this population can facilitate future HIV-1 vaccine development in China.Retrovirology 02/2007; 4:62. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-4-62 · 4.77 Impact Factor