HIV Type 1 molecular epidemiology in cuba: high genetic diversity, frequent mosaicism, and recent expansion of BG intersubtype recombinant forms.
ABSTRACT Highly diverse HIV-1 genetic forms are circulating in Cuba, including subtypes B and G and two recombinant forms of African origin (CRF18_cpx and CRF19_cpx). Here we phylogenetically analyze pol sequences from a large collection of recent samples from Cuba, corresponding to 425 individuals from all Cuban provinces, which represents approximately 12% of prevalent infections in the country. RNA from plasma was used to amplify a pol segment by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; phylogenetic analyses were performed with neighbour-joining trees and bootscanning. The distribution of genetic forms was subtype B, 41.2%; CRF19_cpx, 18.4%; BG recombinants, 11.6%; CRF18_cpx, 7.1%; subtype C, 6.1%; subtype G, 3.8%; B/CRF18 recombinants, 2.6%; subtype H, 2.1%; B/CRF19 recombinants, 1.7%; and others, 5.4%. Seventy-five (17.6%) viruses were recombinant between genetic forms circulating in Cuba. In logistic regression analyses, adjusting by gender and region, subtype B was more prevalent (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.0-12.3) and subtype G less prevalent (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.0-0.5) among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among heterosexuals. Within the main genetic forms of Cuba there were phylogenetic subclusters, several of which correlated with risk exposure or region. BG recombinants formed three phylogenetically related subclusters, corresponding to three different mosaic structures; most of these recombinants were from MSM from Havana City, among whom they have expanded recently, reaching 31% HIV-1 infections diagnosed in 2003. This study confirms the high HIV-1 diversity and frequent recombination in Cuba and reveals the recent expansion of diverse related BG recombinant forms in this country.
- SourceAvailable from: Kristel Van Laethem[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As commercial human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance assays are expensive, they are not commonly used in resource-limited settings. Hence, a more affordable in-house procedure was set up taking into account the specific epidemiological and economic circumstances of Cuba. The performance characteristics of the in-house assay were evaluated using clinical samples with various subtypes and resistance patterns. The lower limit of amplification was determined on dilutions series of 20 clinical isolates and ranged from 84 to 529 RNA copies/mL. For the assessment of trueness, 14 clinical samples were analyzed and the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 was used as the reference standard. The mean nucleotide sequence identity between the two assays was 98.7% ± 1.0. Additionally, 99.0% of the amino acids at drug resistance positions were identical. The sensitivity and specificity in detecting drug resistance mutations was respectively 94.1% and 99.5%. Only few discordances in drug resistance interpretation patterns were observed. The repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated using 10 clinical samples with 3 replicates per sample. The in-house test was very precise as nucleotide sequence identity among paired nucleotide sequences ranged from 98.7% to 99.9%. The acceptance criteria were met by the in-house test for all performance characteristics, demonstrating a high degree of accuracy. Subsequently, the applicability in routine clinical practice was evaluated on 380 plasma samples. The amplification success rate was 91% and good quality consensus sequences encoding the entire protease and the first 335 codons in reverse transcriptase could be obtained for 99% of the successful amplicons. The reagent cost per sample using the in-house procedure was around € 80 per genotyping attempt. Overall, the in-house assay provided good results, was feasible with equipment and reagents available in Cuba and was half as expensive as commercial assays.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117176. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117176 · 3.53 Impact Factor
- AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 01/2009; 25:347. · 2.46 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: One of the major characteristics of HIV-1 is its high genetic variability and extensive heterogeneity. This characteristic is due to its molecular traits, which in turn allows it to vary, recombine, and diversify at a high frequency. As such, it generates complex molecular forms, termed recombinants, which evade the human immune system and so survive. There is no sequence constraint to the recombination pattern as it appears to occur at inter-group (between groups M and O), as well as interand intra-subtype within group M. Rapid emergence and active global transmission of HIV-1 recombinants, known as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs), requires urgent attention. To date, 55 CRFs have been reported around the world. The first CRF01_AE originated from Central Africa but spread widely in Asia. The most recent CRF; CRF55_01B is a recombinant form of CRF01_AE and subtype B, although its origin is yet to be publicly disclosed. HIV-1 recombination is an ongoing event and plays an indispensable role in HIV epidemics in different regions. Africa, Asia and South America are identified as recombination hot-spots. They are affected by continual emergence and cocirculation of newly emerging CRFs and URFs, which are now responsible for almost 20% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. Better understanding of recombinants is necessary to determine their biological and molecular attributes.Infectious disease reports 06/2013; 5(Suppl 1):e4. DOI:10.4081/idr.2013.s1.e4