High frequency of SDHB germline mutations in patients with malignant catecholamine-producing paragangliomas: Implications for genetic testing
ABSTRACT Adrenal and extraadrenal paragangliomas are tumors of chromaffin cells that are usually benign but that may also develop into malignant disease. Mutations of the gene for succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) are associated with a high risk of malignancy, but establishing the precise contribution requires relatively large numbers of patients with well-defined malignancy.
We assessed the prevalence of SDHB mutations in a series of patients with malignant paraganglioma.
SDHB mutation testing was carried out in 44 consecutive patients with malignant paraganglioma. Clinical characteristics of patients with malignant disease due to SDHB mutations were compared with those without mutations.
Pathogenic SDHB mutations were found in 13 of the 44 patients (30%). Close to one third of patients had metastases originating from an adrenal primary tumor, compared with a little over two thirds from an extraadrenal tumor. Among the latter patients, the frequency of SDHB mutations was 48%.
This study establishes that missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice site mutations of the SDHB gene are associated with about half of all malignancies originating from extraadrenal paragangliomas. The high frequency of SDHB germline mutations among patients with malignant disease, particularly when originating from an extraadrenal paraganglioma, may justify a high priority for SDHB germline mutation testing in these patients.
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ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the major imaging modalities used for the localization of catecholamine-producing tumors (pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma). Functional imaging (FI) offers an alternative approach to localize, evaluate, and stage these tumors. Our objective was to describe the additive benefit of FI studies for patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPG) who have undergone MRI or CT scan evaluation. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus from database inception through June 2012 for studies that included patients with biochemically proven PPGs who underwent CT or MRI and additional FI for the localization of PPGs. We included 32 studies enrolling a total of 1,264 patients with a mean age of 43-years old. The studies were uncontrolled and evaluated six FI modalities. FI tests provided small additive value to CT/MRI, aiding in the localization of only 24/1,445 primary cases (1.4 %) and 28/805 metastatic cases (3.5 %). In metastatic cases, 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and fluorodopamine-PET (FDA) were the FI tests most successful at identifying disease missed by CT/MRI, providing additional benefit in 6/60 (10 %) and 5/78 (6.4 %) cases, respectively. No clinically significant findings were observed in any of the predefined subgroups. No study evaluated the impact of FI on the completeness of surgical resection or other patient-important outcomes. Observational evidence suggests that FI tests have a limited additional role in patients with PPGs who have undergone CT/MRI evaluation. However, the role of FI tests in specific subgroups of patients with atypical presentations (metastatic, extra-adrenal) as well as the use of hybrid FI tests should be explored. Further research should also evaluate the impact of FI tests on patient-important outcomes.Endocrine 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12020-015-0544-7 · 3.53 Impact Factor
Article: Cardiac Paraganglioma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cardiac paragangliomas are rare tumors arising from chromaffin cells. Two patients with cardiac paragangliomas underwent surgical resection with no evidence of recurrence three and 13 years following surgery. This report describes these two patients with cardiac paragangliomas and discusses their management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cardiac Surgery 12/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1111/jocs.12479 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: At least 12 genes (FH, HIF2A, MAX, NF1, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, TMEM127, and VHL) have been implicated in inherited predisposition to phaeochromocytoma (PCC), paraganglioma (PGL), or head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL) and a germline mutation may be detected in more than 30% of cases. Knowledge of somatic mutations contributing to PCC/PGL/HNPGL pathogenesis has received less attention though mutations in HRAS, HIF2A, NF1, RET, and VHL have been reported. To further elucidate the role of somatic mutation in PCC/PGL/HNPGL tumourigenesis, we employed a next generation sequencing strategy to analyse "mutation hotspots" in 50 human cancer genes. Mutations were identified for HRAS (c.37G>C; p.G13R and c.182A>G; p.Q61R) in 7.1% (6/85); for BRAF (c.1799T>A; p.V600E) in 1.2% (1/85) of tumours; and for TP53 (c.1010G>A; p.R337H) in 2.35% (2/85) of cases. Twenty-one tumours harboured mutations in inherited PCC/PGL/HNPGL genes and no HRAS, BRAF, or TP53 mutations occurred in this group. Combining our data with previous reports of HRAS mutations in PCC/PGL we find that the mean frequency of HRAS/BRAF mutations in sporadic PCC/PGL is 8.9% (24/269) and in PCC/PGL with an inherited gene mutation 0% (0/148) suggesting that HRAS/BRAF mutations and inherited PCC/PGL genes mutations might be mutually exclusive. We report the first evidence for BRAF mutations in the pathogenesis of PCC/PGL/HNPGL.International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2015; 2015:138573. DOI:10.1155/2015/138573 · 1.52 Impact Factor