Retention, adherence and compliance: important considerations for home- and group-based resistance training programs for older adults.
ABSTRACT Reports on the efficacy of physical activity intervention trials usually only include discussion of the primary outcomes. However, assessing factors such as participant retention, adherence and compliance can assist in the accurate interpretation of the overall impact of a program in terms of reach and appeal. A quasi-randomised trial was carried out to assess and compare retention and adherence rates, and compliance with, a twice weekly resistance training program provided either individually at home or in a group format. Retirement villages (n=6) were assigned to either 'Have A Try' (HAT, home-based) or 'Come Have A Try' (CHAT, group-based); both programs included nine strength and two balance exercises. The program involved a 20-week Intervention Phase a 24-week Maintenance Phase and a 20-week On-going Maintenance Phase. One hundred and nineteen participants (mean age 80+/-6 years) were recruited (HAT=38, CHAT=81). There was no difference in retention rates at the end of the Intervention Phase, but significantly more HAT than CHAT participants had dropped out of the study (p<0.01) after the Maintenance Phase and the On-going Maintenance Phase. During the Intervention Phase, over half the HAT and CHAT participants completed > or =75% of the prescribed activity sessions, but adherence was significantly greater in CHAT than HAT during the Maintenance Phase (p<0.01). Participants in CHAT were significantly more compliant than HAT participants (p<0.05). Both home- and group-based formats were successful over the short-term, but, in retirement villages, the group program had better adherence and compliance in the longer-term.
- 01/1986; Prentice Hall.
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about the predictors of maintenance in organized exercise programmes. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral predictors of maintenance of exercise participation in older adults, using an integrated social psychological model. To this end, we carried out a prospective cohort study (n = 1,725; age 50 years or older) involving 10 different types of exercise programmes, with measurements at baseline and after 6 months. Predictors of intention to continue participating and the actual maintenance of exercise participation in the exercise programme were assessed using a step-wise logistic regression model. Significant odds ratios (ORs) predicting the intention to continue with the exercise programme were found for female sex, younger age, being married, being a non-smoker, being in paid employment, having a positive attitude towards exercise and having a high self-efficacy at baseline. Significant ORs predicting actual maintenance of exercise participation were short lapses, absence of lapses, high intention at baseline, high perceived quality of the programme, positive attitude at baseline and few risk situations at baseline. In order to promote maintenance of exercise participation for older adults, effort should be taken to prevent lapses, to help people cope with risk situations for lapses, to improve the attitude towards exercise participation and to improve the quality of the programme.Health Education Research 03/2006; 21(1):1-14. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of structured exercise programs on self-reported disability in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, single-blind clinical trial lasting 18 months conducted at 2 academic medical centers. A total of 439 community-dwelling adults, aged 60 years or older, with radiographically evident knee osteoarthritis, pain, and self-reported physical disability. An aerobic exercise program, a resistance exercise program, and a health education program. The primary outcome was self-reported disability score (range, 1-5). The secondary outcomes were knee pain score (range, 1-6), performance measures of physical function, x-ray score, aerobic capacity, and knee muscle strength. A total of 365 (83%) participants completed the trial. Overall compliance with the exercise prescription was 68% in the aerobic training group and 70% in the resistance training group. Postrandomization, participants in the aerobic exercise group had a 10% lower adjusted mean (+/- SE) score on the physical disability questionnaire (1.71 +/- 0.03 vs 1.90 +/- 0.04 units; P<.001), a 12% lower score on the knee pain questionnaire (2.1 +/- 0.05 vs 2.4 +/- 0.05 units; P=.001), and performed better (mean [+/- SE]) on the 6-minute walk test (1507 +/- 16 vs 1349 +/- 16 ft; P<.001), mean (+/-SE) time to climb and descend stairs (12.7 +/- 0.4 vs 13.9 +/- 0.4 seconds; P=.05), time to lift and carry 10 pounds (9.1 +/- 0.2 vs 10.0 +/- 0.1 seconds; P<.001), and mean (+/-SE) time to get in and out of a car (8.7 +/- 0.3 vs 10.6 +/- 0.3 seconds; P<.001) than the health education group. The resistance exercise group had an 8% lower score on the physical disability questionnaire (1.74 +/- 0.04 vs 1.90 +/- 0.03 units; P=.003), 8% lower pain score (2.2 +/- 0.06 vs 2.4 +/- 0.05 units; P=.02), greater distance on the 6-minute walk (1406 +/- 17 vs 1349 +/- 16 ft; P=.02), faster times on the lifting and carrying task (9.3 +/- 0.1 vs 10.0 +/- 0.16 seconds; P=.001), and the car task (9.0 +/- 0.3 vs 10.6 +/- 0.3 seconds; P=.003) than the health education group. There were no differences in x-ray scores between either exercise group and the health education group. Older disabled persons with osteoarthritis of the knee had modest improvements in measures of disability, physical performance, and pain from participating in either an aerobic or a resistance exercise program. These data suggest that exercise should be prescribed as part of the treatment for knee osteoarthritis.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/1997; 277(1):25-31. · 29.98 Impact Factor