Iron regulatory protein-independent regulation of ferritin synthesis by nitrogen monoxide.
ABSTRACT The discovery of iron-responsive elements (IREs), along with the identification of iron regulatory proteins (IRP1, IRP2), has provided a molecular basis for our current understanding of the remarkable post-transcriptional regulation of intracellular iron homeostasis. In iron-depleted conditions, IRPs bind to IREs present in the 5'-UTR of ferritin mRNA and the 3'-UTR of transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA. Such binding blocks the translation of ferritin, the iron storage protein, and stabilizes TfR mRNA, whereas the opposite scenario develops when iron in the intracellular transit pool is plentiful. Nitrogen monoxide (commonly designated nitric oxide; NO), a gaseous molecule involved in numerous functions, is known to affect cellular iron metabolism via the IRP/IRE system. We previously demonstrated that the oxidized form of NO, NO(+), causes IRP2 degradation that is associated with an increase in ferritin synthesis [Kim, S & Ponka, P (2002) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA99, 12214-12219]. Here we report that sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO(+) donor, causes a dramatic and rapid increase in ferritin synthesis that initially occurs without changes in the RNA-binding activities of IRPs. Moreover, we demonstrate that the translational efficiency of ferritin mRNA is significantly higher in cells treated with SNP compared with those incubated with ferric ammonium citrate, an iron donor. Importantly, we also provide definitive evidence that the iron moiety of SNP is not responsible for such changes. These results indicate that SNP-mediated increase in ferritin synthesis is, in part, due to an IRP-independent and NO(+)-dependent post-transcriptional, regulatory mechanism.
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ABSTRACT: In recent reports attention has been drawn to the extensive amino acid homology between pig heart, yeast, and Escherichia coli aconitases (EC 18.104.22.168) and the iron-responsive element binding protein (IRE-BP) of mammalian cells [Rouault, T. A., Stout, C. D., Kaptain, S., Harford, J. B. & Klausner, R. D. (1991) Cell 64, 881-883.; Hentze, M. W. & Argos, P. (1991) Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 1739-1740.; Prodromou, C., Artymiuk, P. J. & Guest, J. R. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 204, 599-609]. Iron-responsive elements (IREs) are stem-loop structures located in the untranslated regions of mRNAs. IRE-BP is required in the posttranscriptional regulation of ferritin mRNA translation and stabilization of transferrin receptor mRNA. In spite of substantial homology between the amino acid sequences of mammalian mitochondrial aconitase and IRE-BP, the mitochondrial protein does not bind IREs. However, there is a second aconitase, found only in the cytosol of mammalian tissues, that might serve as an IRE-BP. To test this possibility, we have prepared sufficient quantities of the heretofore poorly characterized beef liver cytosolic aconitase. This enzyme is isolated largely in its active [4Fe-4S] form and has a turnover number similar to that of mitochondrial aconitase. The EPR spectra of the two enzymes are markedly different. The amino acid composition, molecular weight, isoelectric point, and the sequences of six random peptides clearly show that these physicochemical and structural characteristics are identical to those of IRE-BP, and that c-aconitase is distinctly different from m-aconitase. In addition, both cytosolic aconitase and IRE-BP can have aconitase activity or function as IRE-BPs, as shown in the following paper and elsewhere [Zheng, L. Kennedy, M. C., Blondin, G. A., Beinert, H. & Zalkin, H. (1992) Arch. Biochem. Biophys., in press]. This leads us to the conclusion that cytosolic aconitase is IRE-BP.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1993; 89(24):11730-4. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Macrophages participate actively in the inflammatory response by releasing cytokines, chemokines and factors that recruit additional cells to sites of infection or tissue injury or alteration. In addition to this, activated macrophages rapidly activate the expression of genes responsible for the high-output synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (NO, O2-, H2O2 and peroxynitrite, among others) and bioactive lipids derived from arachidonic acid. All of these agents contribute to the regulation of the inflammatory response. Most of these molecules, when synthesized at these high concentrations, exert pro-apoptotic effects in many cell types. Macrophages themselves are a notable and important exception, being resistant to apoptotic death upon activation. This resistance is necessary to enable these cells to perform their functional role during the early phases of an inflammatory response. However, after cumulative damage, or when the synthesis of inflammatory mediators decreases, macrophages undergo the characteristic mitochondrial-dependent cell death program, contributing in this way to the resolution of the inflammatory reaction. In the case of infectious diseases, this also helps to prevent the development of parasitic strategies by phagocytosed pathogens.Toxicology 04/2005; 208(2):249-58. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aconitases are important cellular targets of nitric oxide (NO.) toxicity, and NO.-derived species, rather than NO. per se, have been proposed to mediate their inactivation. NO.-mediated inactivation of the Escherichia coli aconitase and the porcine mitochondrial aconitase was investigated. In E. coli, aconitase activity decreased by approximately 70% during a 2-h exposure to an atmosphere containing 120 ppm NO. in N2. The NO.-inactivated aconitase reactivated poorly in E. coli under anaerobic or aerobic conditions. Elevated superoxide dismutase activity did not affect the aerobic inactivation of aconitase by NO., thus indicating a limited role of the NO.- and superoxide-derived species peroxynitrite. Glutathione-deficient and glutathione-containing E. coli were comparably sensitive to NO.-mediated aconitase inactivation, thus excluding the participation of S-nitrosoglutathione or more oxidizing NO.-derived species. NO. progressively decreased aconitase activity in extracts in the presence of substrates, and inactivation was greatest at an acidic pH with cis-aconitate. The porcine mitochondrial aconitase was sensitive to NO. when exposed at pH 6.5, but not at pH 7.5, and irreversible inactivation occurred during catalysis. The requirement of an acidic pH or substrates for sensitivity may explain the reported resistance of aconitases to NO. in vitro (Castro, L., Rodriguez, M., and Radi, R. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 29409-29415; Hausladen, A., and Fridovich, I. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 29405-29408). An S-nitrosation of the aconitase [4Fe-4S] center catalyzed by the solvent-exposed electron withdrawing iron atom (Fea) is proposed.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1997; 272(40):25071-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor