Effects of genetic polymorphisms CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in sugarcane workers.
ABSTRACT Sugarcane workers in Brazil are exposed to various genotoxic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), derived from an incomplete combustion process of burnt sugarcane fields. The effects of the occupational exposure to sugarcane fields burning were measured in urine samples of sugarcane workers from the northwest of the State of São Paulo when exposed (harvesting) and when non-exposed (non-harvesting). The urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and the influence of the genetic polymorphisms CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 were evaluated. Our results showed that the 1-OHP levels were significantly higher (P<0.0000) in the exposed sugarcane workers (0.318 mumol mol(-1) creatinine) than in the non-exposed workers (0.035 mumol mol(-1) creatinine). In an unvaried analysis, no influence regarding the polymorphisms was observed. However, multivariate regression analysis showed that the CYP1A1()4 polymorphism in the exposed group, and age and the GSTP1 polymorphism in the non-exposed group significantly influenced urinary 1-OHP excretion levels (P<0.10). The same group of sugarcane workers was significantly more exposed to PAHs during the harvesting period than during the non-harvesting period.
- Methods in Enzymology 02/1996; 272:226-32. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The influence of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on urinary mutagenic activity was assessed in 75 coke oven workers, using a highly sensitive bacterial mutagen technique (extraction with C18 resin and liquid micro-preincubation test on strain TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of metabolizing and deconjugating enzymes). Exposure to PAHs was assessed according to the urinary excretion of 1-pyrenol; the main confounding factors were checked by the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the levels of nicotine and its metabolites in urine, or by ascertaining whether recommended dietary restrictions had been followed. Of the 20 urine samples which turned out to be positive (producing at least double the number of spontaneous revertants), 19 (95%) belonged to smokers. Only one non-smoker had obvious urinary mutagenic activity, and was highly exposed occupationally to PAHs (urinary 1-pyrenol of 3.930 mumol/mol of creatinine). Of the five urine samples from subjects who had not followed the recommended diet, two (40%) were clearly mutagenic. Multiple regression analysis (n = 67) showed that the presence of samples positive for urinary mutagenic activity depended only on smoking habits, if this confounding factor was assessed according to the number of cigarettes smoked per day, while the significant influence of exposure to PAH could be shown when the confounding factor was objectively estimated according to the urinary levels of nicotine and its metabolites. Assessment of the mutagenic potency of urinary extracts (net revertants/mmol creatinine) confirmed the strong influence of smoking habits on urinary mutagenic activity (all smokers 2156 +/- 2691 versus non-smokers 939 +/- 947 net revertants/mmol creatinine; Mann-Whitney test: P < 0.01). In smokers highly exposed to PAHs, greater excretion of mutagens with respect to low-exposure smokers was revealed (3548 +/- 4009 versus 1552 +/- 1227 net revertants/mmol creatinine; Mann-Whitney test: P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that the mutagenic potency of urinary extracts of coke oven workers depended on exposure to PAHs, tobacco smoking habits, and consumption of fried, grilled or barbecued meat. Increased urinary mutagenic activity strengthens epidemiological evidence of the increased risk of renal and urinary tract tumours in these workers. The presence of mutagenic metabolites in urine as a result of occupational exposure to PAH may be demonstrated only by using highly sensitive techniques for assessing urinary mutagenic activity in studies which include careful checking of the main confounding factors.Carcinogenesis 03/1995; 16(3):547-54. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in detoxification of carcinogens, e.g., from tobacco smoke. Therefore, polymorphisms in the GST genes have been considered as potential modifiers of individual cancer risk. In a population-based case-cohort study where cases and the subcohort sample were matched on duration of smoking, we investigated the occurrence of lung cancer and histological subtypes of lung cancer in relation to deletion polymorphism in both GSTM1 and GSTT1, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 (Ile105Val and Ala114Val) and a 3 base pair deletion polymorphism in GSTM3. We further investigated the effects of the GST polymorphisms on lung cancer risk within subgroups of subjects defined by gender and age. The results showed a 2.4-fold (CI = 1.31-4.41) increased risk of lung cancer in GSTT1 null-genotype carriers but no significant effects of the polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTP1-105 or GSTP1-114. The association was strongest in lower age groups, with a 9.6-fold increase in risk for subjects with the GSTT1 null-genotype in the 50-55 years age interval (CI = 3.03-30.59). Positive associations were found for GSTT1 within all major histological subtypes. Squamous cell carcinoma was the histological type most strongly associated with the GSTT1 genotype, with a 5.0-fold (CI = 2.26-11.18) increase in risk for subjects carrying the GSTT1 null-genotype. The effects of the GSTT1 null-genotype seemed stronger in the presence of the GSTM1 null-genotype or the GSTP1-105 variant allele. These results suggest that the GSTT1 null-genotype is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, especially in younger individuals.International Journal of Cancer 07/2004; 110(2):219-24. · 6.20 Impact Factor