Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): report of the Consortium on DLB International Workshop.
ABSTRACT Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) was considered to be an uncommon cause of dementia until improved neuropathological staining methods for ubiquitin were developed in the late 1980's. Subsequent recognition that 10-15% of dementia cases in older people were associated with Lewy body pathology led to the publication in 1996 of Consensus clinical and pathological diagnostic criteria for the disorder. These have greatly raised global awareness of DLB and helped to generate a body of knowledge which informs modern clinical management of this pharmacologically sensitive group of patients. They have also enabled important issues surrounding the relationships of DLB with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease to be addressed and partially resolved. A recent re-evaluation of the Consensus criteria has confirmed many aspects of the original recommendations, supplementing these with suggestions for improved pathological characterisation, clinical detection and management. Virtu-ally unrecognised 20 years ago, DLB could within this decade be one of the best characterised and potentially treatable neurodegenerative disorders of late life.
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Discerning dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common and challenging differential diagnoses at the memory clinic. Although the neuropsychiatric manifestations have been widely reported as one of the main key points in the differential diagnosis between these two diseases, to date no neuropsychiatric questionnaire has been specifically devised for this purpose. Methods: We administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in Alzheimer's Disease (CUSPAD) to a memory clinic sample of 80 patients with probable DLB and 85 age- and severity-matched patients with probable AD. Diagnosis of probable DLB was supported with a positive dopamine transporter SPECT scan. We examined the usefulness of these two neuropsychiatric tools designed for AD in the differential diagnosis between DLB and AD. We also investigated the correlations between psychotic symptoms and measures of cognitive and functional decline. Results: Auditory hallucinations were very specific of DLB and were usually preceded by visual hallucinations. Misinterpretation of real visual stimuli (illusions) was more frequent in DLB. Delusions were both quantitatively and qualitatively different between DLB and AD: delusional misidentifications were significantly more characteristic of DLB, while paranoid delusions did not show specificity for DLB. Conclusions: Neuropsychiatric tools are useful to discriminate DLB from AD. Hallucinations and delusions are not only more frequent in DLB than in AD but also have distinct qualitative characteristics and patterns of progression that can help clinicians to make a more accurate differential diagnosis.International Psychogeriatrics 11/2013; DOI:10.1017/S1041610213002068 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathologic substrates in patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) with or without a coexisting neurologic disorder. METHODS: The clinical and neuropathologic findings were analyzed on all autopsied cases from one of the collaborating sites in North America and Europe, were evaluated from January 1990 to March 2012, and were diagnosed with polysomnogram (PSG)-proven or probable RBD with or without a coexisting neurologic disorder. The clinical and neuropathologic diagnoses were based on published criteria. RESULTS: 172 cases were identified, of whom 143 (83%) were men. The mean±SD age of onset in years for the core features were as follows - RBD, 62±14 (range, 20-93), cognitive impairment (n=147); 69±10 (range, 22-90), parkinsonism (n=151); 68±9 (range, 20-92), and autonomic dysfunction (n=42); 62±12 (range, 23-81). Death age was 75±9years (range, 24-96). Eighty-two (48%) had RBD confirmed by PSG, 64 (37%) had a classic history of recurrent dream enactment behavior, and 26 (15%) screened positive for RBD by questionnaire. RBD preceded the onset of cognitive impairment, parkinsonism, or autonomic dysfunction in 87 (51%) patients by 10±12 (range, 1-61) years. The primary clinical diagnoses among those with a coexisting neurologic disorder were dementia with Lewy bodies (n=97), Parkinson's disease with or without mild cognitive impairment or dementia (n=32), multiple system atrophy (MSA) (n=19), Alzheimer's disease (AD)(n=9) and other various disorders including secondary narcolepsy (n=2) and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation-type 1 (NBAI-1) (n=1). The neuropathologic diagnoses were Lewy body disease (LBD)(n=77, including 1 case with a duplication in the gene encoding α-synuclein), combined LBD and AD (n=59), MSA (n=19), AD (n=6), progressive supranulear palsy (PSP) (n=2), other mixed neurodegenerative pathologies (n=6), NBIA-1/LBD/tauopathy (n=1), and hypothalamic structural lesions (n=2). Among the neurodegenerative disorders associated with RBD (n=170), 160 (94%) were synucleinopathies. The RBD-synucleinopathy association was particularly high when RBD preceded the onset of other neurodegenerative syndrome features. CONCLUSIONS: In this large series of PSG-confirmed and probable RBD cases that underwent autopsy, the strong association of RBD with the synucleinopathies was further substantiated and a wider spectrum of disorders which can underlie RBD now are more apparent.Sleep Medicine 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2012.10.015 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a heterogeneous group of behavioral and psychiatric disturbances occurring in dementia patients of any etiology. Research suggests that altered activities of dopaminergic, serotonergic, (nor)adrenergic, as well as amino acid neurotransmitter systems play a role in the etiopathogenesis of BPSD. In this study we attempted to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurochemical correlates of BPSD to provide further insight into its underlying neurochemical pathophysiological mechanisms. METHODS: Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 202), probable AD with cerebrovascular disease (n = 37), probable frontotemporal dementia (FTD; n = 32), and probable dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 26) underwent behavioral assessment and lumbar puncture. CSF levels of six amino acids and several biogenic amines and metabolites were analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. RESULTS: In the AD patients, CSF homovanillic acid/5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HVA/5HIAA) ratios correlated positively with anxieties/phobias, whereas CSF levels of taurine correlated negatively with depression and behavioral disturbances in general. In FTD patients, CSF levels of glutamate correlated negatively with verbally agitated behavior. In DLB patients, CSF levels of HVA correlated negatively with hallucinations. CONCLUSIONS: Several neurotransmitter systems can be linked to one specific behavioral syndrome depending on the dementia subtype. In addition to biogenic amines and metabolites, amino acids seem to play a major role in the neurochemical etiology of BPSD as well.