To measure the hand grip strength of Malaysians aged 18 to 65 years.
Between January and April 2003, 412 subjects (200 women and 212 men) were recruited from staff, students, and visitors of the University of Malaya Medical Centre. Socioeconomic, general health, and lifestyle data were collected from each subject using a standard questionnaire. Weight and height were measured prior to testing. Standardised positioning and instructions based on several hand grip protocols were used. Data were collected using the LIDO kinetic work set.
93% of the subjects were right-hand dominant and 7% were left-hand dominant. Hand grip strength was significantly correlated with hand dominance, gender, occupation, height, and weight, but not body mass index. No significant differences in grip strength were noted with regard to race or level of income. Men were stronger than women in all age-groups, with a ratio of 1.75:1. In both right- and left-hand dominant groups, the dominant hand was consistently stronger than the non-dominant side, with a ratio of 1.12:1 in the right-hand dominant group and 1.05:1 in the left-hand dominant group. The strongest hand grip strength in the right-hand dominant group occurred in the age-group of 25 to 34 years; in the left-hand dominant group it was in the age-group of 18 to 24 years. In western populations, the mean grip strength can be as much as 1.5 times greater than in the Malaysian population.
Data derived from western populations cannot be applied to a comparable Malaysian population. Gender, hand dominance, age, occupation, weight, and height must be considered when establishing normal values for grip strength.
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"In addition, there are a number of studies that found crossnational and ethnic differences in grip strength (e.g.; Guthrie et al. cited in Chapanis, 1975; Desrosiers et al., 1995; Butler, 1997; Kothiyal and Tettey, 2000; Kamarul et al., 2006; Andersen- Ranberg et al., 2009; Wu et al., 2009; Werle et al., 2009; Araujo et al., 2010). According to Andersen-Ranberg et al. (2009), geneeenvironment (geographical region) interactions may explain country-specific differences. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normative data are of importance in ergonomics and clinical settings. Applying normative data internationally is questionable. To this end, this study aimed to establish gender- and age-specific reference values for static (isometric) hand grip strength of normal population of Turkey with special regard to occupational demand, and compare them with the international norms. The secondary aims were to investigate the effects of gender, age-group, weight-group, job-group, hand and several anthropometric variables on static grip strength. A sample of 211 (128 male and 83 female) volunteers aged between 18 and 69 with various occupations participated in the study. Grip strength data were collected using a Jamar dynamometer with standard testing position, protocol and instructions. The mean and std deviation of maximum voluntary static grip strength values (in N) for dominant and non-dominant hands respectively were 455.2 ± 73.6 and 441.5 ± 72.6 for males, and 258 ± 46.1 and 246.2 ± 49.1 for females. The mean female strength was about 57% of the mean male strength value for both dominant and non-dominant hands. There was a curvilinear relationship of grip strength to age, significant differences between genders, hands, and some age-groups, and a correlation to height, body-mass, BMI and hand dimensions depending on the gender. The comparisons with the norms of other world populations indicate that there are cross-national grip strength variations among some nations but not all.
"To the best of our knowledge, the present study for the first time presents information on 2D:4D and handgrip strength of both sexes in Hani ethnicity. The main findings are 1) the mean 2D:4D in females was higher than that in males for both hands, which supports the related finding on East-Asian 2D:4D ; 2) females showed significantly higher 2D:4D than males in the right hand but not in the left hand; 3) no significant sex difference was found on right-left 2D:4D; 4) a significant sex difference was found on handgrip strength, which may be due to some sex-specific traits , , , ; 5) handgrip strength decreased with age for both sexes, which is in accord with many previous studies , –; 6) as expected, a significant negative correlation between 2D:4D and handgrip strength was only found in the right hand of males. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ratio of the length of the second finger to the fourth finger (2D:4D) in humans is considered as a putative marker of prenatal exposure to testosterone, and has been progressively adopted as one useful tool to evaluate the effect of prenatal hormones in some traits such as physical ability. Handgrip strength is one authentic measure of physical ability and is generally used on the anthropological research within an evolutionary viewpoint.
Here we present the first evidence on 2D:4D and handgrip strength on adult participants of Hani ethnicity and explore the relationship between digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength. We examined 2D:4D and handgrip strength of 80 males and 60 females at Bubeng village, in the Yunnan province of China.
The mean 2D:4D in females was higher than that in males for each hand. Females showed significantly higher 2D:4D than males in the right hand rather than in the left hand. Males displayed significantly higher handgrip strength than females for both hands. Handgrip strength decreased with age for both sexes. A significant negative correlation between 2D:4D and handgrip strength was found in the right hand of males.
The relationship between 2D:4D and handgrip strength may be attributed to evolutionary drive of sexual selection operating on fetal programming.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77958. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077958 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"These values suggest hospitalized older patients in the UK have stronger grip strengths than those in Malaysia. Other studies have also observed a lower range of grip strength in Southeast Asian populations compared to Caucasians (Kamarul et al., 2006; Table 1 Characteristics of male and female participants. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Grip strength is a marker of sarcopenia, the age-related decline in muscle mass and function, and has been little researched in Asian populations. We aimed to describe the feasibility and acceptability of measuring grip strength in hospitalized, older people in Malaysia and to explore its range, determinants and association with length of stay. Patients admitted acutely to the geriatrics ward of a teaching hospital were consecutively recruited. Inability to consent or use the dynamometer led to exclusion. Maximum grip strength, anthropometric data, length of hospital stay, discharge destination, 3-point Barthel score, mini-mental state examination, falls history and number of co-morbidities and medications on admission were recorded. 80/153 (52%) eligible patients were recruited (52 women; age range 64-100 years). 9/153 (6%) refused to participate and 64/153 (42%) were excluded (34 too unwell, 24 unable to consent, 4 unable to use the dynamometer, 2 other reasons). 76/80 patients (95%) reported that they would undergo grip strength measurement again. Determinants were similar to those of Caucasian populations but grip strength values were lower. After adjustment for sex, age and height, stronger grip strength was associated with shorter length of stay [hazard ratio 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.09; P=0.03)]. This is the first report of grip strength measurement in hospitalized older people in Malaysia. It was feasible, acceptable to participants and associated with length of stay. Further research is warranted to elucidate the normative range in different ethnic groups and explore its potential use in clinical practice in Malaysia.
Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 10/2012; 56(1). DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2012.10.005 · 1.85 Impact Factor