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Exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (Epac)-mediated induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) in vascular endothelial cells.

Molecular Pharmacology Group, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.
Molecular and Cellular Biology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 10/2006; 26(17):6333-46. DOI: 10.1128/MCB.00207-06
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Here, we demonstrate that elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by either a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase or endogenous cAMP-mobilizing G protein-coupled receptors inhibited the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT proteins by an interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor trans-signaling complex (soluble IL-6Ralpha/IL-6). This was associated with the induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3), a bona fide inhibitor in vivo of gp130, the signal-transducing component of the IL-6 receptor complex. Attenuation of SOCS-3 induction in either ECs or SOCS-3-null murine embryonic fibroblasts abolished the inhibitory effect of cAMP, whereas inhibition of SHP-2, another negative regulator of gp130, was without effect. Interestingly, the inhibition of STAT phosphorylation and SOCS-3 induction did not require cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity but could be recapitulated upon selective activation of the alternative cAMP sensor Epac, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1. Consistent with this hypothesis, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Epac1 was sufficient to attenuate both cAMP-mediated SOCS-3 induction and inhibition of STAT phosphorylation, suggesting that Epac activation is both necessary and sufficient to observe these effects. Together, these data argue for the existence of a novel cAMP/Epac/Rap1/SOCS-3 pathway for limiting IL-6 receptor signaling in ECs and illuminate a new mechanism by which cAMP may mediate its potent anti-inflammatory effects.

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