Association between Reduced Sleep and Weight Gain in Women

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 12/2006; 164(10):947-54. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwj280
Source: PubMed


Physiologic studies suggest that sleep restriction has metabolic effects that predispose to weight gain. The authors investigated the association between self-reported usual sleep duration and subsequent weight gain in the Nurses' Health Study. The 68,183 women who reported habitual sleep duration in 1986 were followed for 16 years. In analyses adjusted for age and body mass index, women sleeping 5 hours or less gained 1.14 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 1.79) more than did those sleeping 7 hours over 16 years, and women sleeping 6 hours gained 0.71 kg (95% CI: 0.41, 1.00) more. The relative risks of a 15-kg weight gain were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.47) and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.19) for those sleeping 5 and 6 hours, respectively. The relative risks for incident obesity (body mass index: >30 kg/m(2)) were 1.15 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.26) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.11). These associations remained significant after inclusion of important covariates and were not affected by adjustment for physical activity or dietary consumption. These data suggest that short sleep duration is associated with a modest increase in future weight gain and incident obesity. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which sleep duration may affect weight.

Download full-text


Available from: Atul Malhotra, Nov 21, 2014
    • "However, we found little evidence supporting this hypothesis, since (1) our habitual short and long sleepers did not differ in their level of physical activity beyond intervention across the 12-week training period assessed by the IPAQ; and (2) we controlled for physical activity beyond intervention by including it as a covariate in the analyses of the effects of the training. This is in line with two other studies which were not able to explain the sleep–weight association by physical activity (Patel et al. 2006; Hasler et al. 2004). Another hypothesis addresses the availability of more waking time to eat in short sleepers (Sivak 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although it is widely accepted that physical exercise promotes weight loss, physical exercise alone had been found to result in only marginal weight loss compared to no treatment. Interestingly, both subjective and objective sleep duration have been shown to be negatively correlated to the body mass index (BMI). Despite this growing evidence of a relation between sleep duration and body weight, the role of habitual sleep duration in physical exercise-induced weight loss has not been studied so far. Twenty-two healthy elderly good sleepers aged 61–76 years (mean 68.36 years, 55 % female, BMI mean 25.15 kg/m2) either took part in a 12-week aerobic endurance training (3 × 30 min/week) or in a relaxation control (2 × 45 min/week). The BMI was assessed prior to and after intervention. Subjects maintained sleep logs every morning/evening during the training period, allowing for calculation of habitual sleep duration. Besides a significant main effect of the type of training, a significant interaction of type of training and habitual sleep duration was observed: while after treadmill training subjects who slept less than 7.5 h/night during intervention reduced their BMI by nearly 4 %, a comparable decrease in the BMI was found neither in subjects who slept more than 7.5 h nor after relaxation training independent of sleep duration. Sleep duration itself did not change in any group. Although results should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size, this is the first study to indicate that physical exercise might compensate for disturbed body weight regulation associated with short sleep duration.
    Journal of Neural Transmission 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00702-015-1460-y · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Elevated afternoon cortisol levels have been associated with alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance that could promote weight gain, visceral obesity and other features of the metabolic syndrome (Plat et al., 1999; Whitworth et al., 2005; Anagnostis et al., 2009; Buxton et al., 2010; Matthews et al., 2012). Thus, the failure of women during the follicular phase to show the usual steep fall in cortisol levels during the afternoon after sleep restriction could contribute to findings of higher body weights in those with short sleep in several prospective epidemiological studies (Hasler et al., 2004; Patel et al., 2006). One interpretation of the pattern of cortisol levels shown across the day after sleep restriction during the follicular phase is that the daily rhythm of cortisol secretion is dampened by sleep loss, reducing the morning peak and attenuating the afternoon fall in levels. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is extensive evidence that sleep restriction alters endocrine function in healthy young men, increasing afternoon cortisol levels and modifying levels of other hormones that regulate metabolism. Recent studies have confirmed these effects in young women, but have not investigated whether menstrual cycle phase influences these responses. The effects on cortisol levels of limiting sleep to 3 h for one night were assessed in two groups of women at different points in their menstrual cycles: mid-follicular and mid-luteal. Eighteen healthy, young women, not taking oral contraceptives (age: 21.8 ± 0.53; BMI: 22.5 ± 0.58 [mean ± SEM]), were studied. Baseline sleep durations, eating habits and menstrual cycles were monitored. Salivary samples were collected at six times of day (08:00, 08:30, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00) during two consecutive days: first after a 10 h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline) and then after a night with a 3 h sleep opportunity (Post-sleep restriction). All were awakened at the same time of day. Women in the follicular phase showed a significant decrease (p = 0.004) in their cortisol awakening responses (CAR) after sleep restriction and a sustained elevation in afternoon/evening cortisol levels (p = 0.008), as has been reported for men. Women in the luteal phase showed neither a depressed CAR, nor an increase in afternoon/evening cortisol levels. Secondary analyses examined the impact of sleep restriction on self-reported hunger and mood. Menstrual cycle phase dramatically altered the cortisol responses of healthy, young women to a single night of sleep restriction, implicating effects of spontaneous changes in endocrine status on adrenal responses to sleep loss.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 11/2014; 49(1):34–46. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.06.002 · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In a metaanalysis of 18 cross-sectional studies, which included a total of >604,000 adults [35], each additional hour of sleep was found to be associated with a pooled β-coefficient for BMI of −0.35 kg/m 2 (95% CI: −0.57, −0.12). Several [6] [7], but not all [36], prospective studies have also reported inverse associations between sleep duration and weight gain. For example, in the Quebec Family Study cohort, individuals sleeping 5–6 h/day gained 1.98 (95% CI: 1.16, 2.82) kg more than those sleeping an average of 7–8 h/day, over a period of 6 years [6]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To examine the association between sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n=391). Methods Sleep duration was derived using a combination of questionnaire and objective heart rate and movement sensing in the UK ADDITION-Plus study (2002-2007). Adjusted means were estimated for individual cardiometabolic risk factors and clustered cardiometabolic risk (CCMR) by five categories of sleep duration. Results We observed a J-shaped association between sleep duration and CCMR – individuals sleeping 7-<8 hours had a significantly better CCMR profile than those sleeping ≥9 hours. Independent of physical activity and sedentary time, individuals sleeping 7-<8 hours had lower triacylglycerol (0.62 mmol/l [0.29, 1.06]) and higher HDL-cholesterol levels (0.23 mmol/l [0.16, 0.30]) compared with those sleeping ≥9 hours, and a lower waist circumference (7.87 cm [6.06, 9.68]) and BMI (3.47 kg/m2 [2.69, 4.25]) than those sleeping <6 hours. Although sleeping 7-<8 hours was associated with lower levels of systolic- and diastolic- blood pressure, HbA1c, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, these associations were not statistically significant. Conclusions Sleep duration has a J-shaped association with CCMR in individuals with diabetes, independent of potential confounding. Health promotion interventions might highlight the importance of adequate sleep in this high risk population.
    Sleep Medicine 10/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.10.006 · 3.15 Impact Factor
Show more