Association between Reduced Sleep and Weight Gain in Women

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 12/2006; 164(10):947-54. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwj280
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Physiologic studies suggest that sleep restriction has metabolic effects that predispose to weight gain. The authors investigated the association between self-reported usual sleep duration and subsequent weight gain in the Nurses' Health Study. The 68,183 women who reported habitual sleep duration in 1986 were followed for 16 years. In analyses adjusted for age and body mass index, women sleeping 5 hours or less gained 1.14 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 1.79) more than did those sleeping 7 hours over 16 years, and women sleeping 6 hours gained 0.71 kg (95% CI: 0.41, 1.00) more. The relative risks of a 15-kg weight gain were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.47) and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.19) for those sleeping 5 and 6 hours, respectively. The relative risks for incident obesity (body mass index: >30 kg/m(2)) were 1.15 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.26) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.11). These associations remained significant after inclusion of important covariates and were not affected by adjustment for physical activity or dietary consumption. These data suggest that short sleep duration is associated with a modest increase in future weight gain and incident obesity. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which sleep duration may affect weight.

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Available from: Atul Malhotra, Nov 21, 2014
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    • "Elevated afternoon cortisol levels have been associated with alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance that could promote weight gain, visceral obesity and other features of the metabolic syndrome (Plat et al., 1999; Whitworth et al., 2005; Anagnostis et al., 2009; Buxton et al., 2010; Matthews et al., 2012). Thus, the failure of women during the follicular phase to show the usual steep fall in cortisol levels during the afternoon after sleep restriction could contribute to findings of higher body weights in those with short sleep in several prospective epidemiological studies (Hasler et al., 2004; Patel et al., 2006). One interpretation of the pattern of cortisol levels shown across the day after sleep restriction during the follicular phase is that the daily rhythm of cortisol secretion is dampened by sleep loss, reducing the morning peak and attenuating the afternoon fall in levels. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is extensive evidence that sleep restriction alters endocrine function in healthy young men, increasing afternoon cortisol levels and modifying levels of other hormones that regulate metabolism. Recent studies have confirmed these effects in young women, but have not investigated whether menstrual cycle phase influences these responses. The effects on cortisol levels of limiting sleep to 3 h for one night were assessed in two groups of women at different points in their menstrual cycles: mid-follicular and mid-luteal. Eighteen healthy, young women, not taking oral contraceptives (age: 21.8 ± 0.53; BMI: 22.5 ± 0.58 [mean ± SEM]), were studied. Baseline sleep durations, eating habits and menstrual cycles were monitored. Salivary samples were collected at six times of day (08:00, 08:30, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00) during two consecutive days: first after a 10 h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline) and then after a night with a 3 h sleep opportunity (Post-sleep restriction). All were awakened at the same time of day. Women in the follicular phase showed a significant decrease (p = 0.004) in their cortisol awakening responses (CAR) after sleep restriction and a sustained elevation in afternoon/evening cortisol levels (p = 0.008), as has been reported for men. Women in the luteal phase showed neither a depressed CAR, nor an increase in afternoon/evening cortisol levels. Secondary analyses examined the impact of sleep restriction on self-reported hunger and mood. Menstrual cycle phase dramatically altered the cortisol responses of healthy, young women to a single night of sleep restriction, implicating effects of spontaneous changes in endocrine status on adrenal responses to sleep loss.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 11/2014; 49(1):34–46. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.06.002 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    • "In a metaanalysis of 18 cross-sectional studies, which included a total of >604,000 adults [35], each additional hour of sleep was found to be associated with a pooled β-coefficient for BMI of −0.35 kg/m 2 (95% CI: −0.57, −0.12). Several [6] [7], but not all [36], prospective studies have also reported inverse associations between sleep duration and weight gain. For example, in the Quebec Family Study cohort, individuals sleeping 5–6 h/day gained 1.98 (95% CI: 1.16, 2.82) kg more than those sleeping an average of 7–8 h/day, over a period of 6 years [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To examine the association between sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n=391). Methods Sleep duration was derived using a combination of questionnaire and objective heart rate and movement sensing in the UK ADDITION-Plus study (2002-2007). Adjusted means were estimated for individual cardiometabolic risk factors and clustered cardiometabolic risk (CCMR) by five categories of sleep duration. Results We observed a J-shaped association between sleep duration and CCMR – individuals sleeping 7-<8 hours had a significantly better CCMR profile than those sleeping ≥9 hours. Independent of physical activity and sedentary time, individuals sleeping 7-<8 hours had lower triacylglycerol (0.62 mmol/l [0.29, 1.06]) and higher HDL-cholesterol levels (0.23 mmol/l [0.16, 0.30]) compared with those sleeping ≥9 hours, and a lower waist circumference (7.87 cm [6.06, 9.68]) and BMI (3.47 kg/m2 [2.69, 4.25]) than those sleeping <6 hours. Although sleeping 7-<8 hours was associated with lower levels of systolic- and diastolic- blood pressure, HbA1c, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, these associations were not statistically significant. Conclusions Sleep duration has a J-shaped association with CCMR in individuals with diabetes, independent of potential confounding. Health promotion interventions might highlight the importance of adequate sleep in this high risk population.
    Sleep Medicine 10/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.10.006 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    • "These results reveal an association between sleep patterns and nutritional status of resident shift workers. Some recent studies have examined the relationship between reported sleep and food intake and obesity (Baron et al., 2011; Hairston et al., 2010; Patel et al., 2006) both from a qualitative (Brondel et al, 2010; St-Onge et al, 2011) and quantitative (Brondel et al., 2010; Garaulet et al., 2011; St-Onge et al., 2011) point of view. Nedeltcheva et al. (2009) found that a reduction of sleep time led to an increase in the number of calories being obtained from snacks, compared to the amount of calories greater after the sleep period (p ¼ 0.02), with higher carbohydrate content (p ¼ 0.04). "
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    ABSTRACT: Shift work and long hours of work are common in medical training and have been associated with a higher propensity for developing nutritional problems and obesity. Changes in leptin and ghrelin concentrations - two hormones that contribute importantly to the central regulation of food intake - are poorly described in this population. The aim of this study was to identify possible negative associations between sleep patterns, nutritional status and serum levels of adipokines. The study included 72 resident physicians (52 women and 20 men) who underwent the following assessments: nutritional assessment (3-day dietary recall evaluated by the Adapted Healthy Eating Index), anthropometric variables, fasting metabolism, physical activity level, sleep quality and sleepiness. Resident physicians with poor sleep quality reported greater weight gain after the beginning of residency (5.1 and 3.0 kg, respectively; p = 0.01) and higher frequency of abnormal waist circumference (44.2 and 17.6%, respectively; p = 0.04) than those with better sleep quality. Mean ghrelin concentration was greater in volunteers with poor sleep quality (64.6 ± 67.8 and 26.2 ± 25.0 pg/mL, respectively; p = 0.04). Women identified as having excessive daytime sleepiness had lower levels of leptin (9.57 ± 10.4 ng/mL versus 16.49 ± 11.4 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.03) than those without excessive sleepiness. Furthermore, correlations were found between hours of additional work per week and: intake of cereals, bread and pasta (r = 0.22, p = 0.01); intake of servings of fruits (r = -0.20; p = 0.02) and beans (r = -0.21; p = 0.01); and global score for Adapted Healthy Eating Index (r = -0.23; p = 0.008; Table 3). The sleep quality total score correlated with servings of beans (r = -0.22; p = 0.01) and servings of oils (r = 0.23; p = 0.008). Significant correlations were found between mean of time of sleep and servings of cereals, bread and pasta (r = 0.20; p = 0.02), servings of meat (r = -0.29; p = 0.02) and cholesterol levels (r = 0.27; p = 0.03). These observations indicate that sleep patterns and long working hours of resident physicians are negatively associated with biological markers related to central food control, the lipid profile, cholesterol levels and eating healthy foods. These factors may predispose these shift workers to become overweight and develop metabolic disorders.
    Chronobiology International 09/2014; 31(10):1-9. DOI:10.3109/07420528.2014.957300 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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