Traumatic adrenal haemorrhage in children.
ABSTRACT Adrenal injuries following blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon. Recent increased detection of traumatic adrenal haemorrhage (TAH) prompted this study.
Cases were identified from retrospective search of the trauma and medical imaging database for the period 1998-2004. Medical records were reviewed and data analysed to identify mechanism of injury, imaging findings, associated injuries, presence of hypotension, length of stay and follow up.
Eleven children were identified with TAH. Right adrenal was commonly injured. Motor vehicle injury was the commonest mechanism. All injuries were identified on initial computed tomography, and all but one had associated abdominal injuries. There were no deaths. Ultrasound showed resolution within 3 months in six patients.
TAH is an uncommon injury that is rarely isolated. Although initial diagnosis is made on computed tomography, ultrasound appears adequate for follow up. TAH appears to be an incidental finding that resolves on follow-up imaging.
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ABSTRACT: Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) was identified in 1% of 313 children admitted to the trauma unit with abdominal or thoracoabdominal blunt trauma within a 10-year period (1989-1999). Ultrasound examination was useful as a first diagnostic measure in stable children, but computed tomography (CT) is considered to be a better diagnostic tool. Associated visceral injury is common, and liver trauma was present in all 3 cases. Lesions are mainly right-sided, but left-sided or bilateral injuries have also been reported. A few cases are only recognized during surgery or necropsy. Lower-chest injury was seen in one-half of the cases and can result in severe morbidity. AH should not be considered rare, and the widespread use of CT proves that it is a strong indicator of associated visceral injury.Pediatric Surgery International 02/2000; 16(8):586-8. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Four patients with traumatic hemorrhage in the right adrenal gland were examined with computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) (initial US studies in three patients; follow-up study at least 1 month after the trauma in all patients). CT showed an enlarged inhomogeneous gland of normal to increased attenuation. This finding was associated with stranding of the periadrenal fat and stranding of the subcutaneous fat of the right flank, which corresponded to the site of trauma. US showed an enlarged, hyperechoic mass with a bright central echo that became cystic on follow-up examinations. Magnetic resonance imaging, performed in one patient, showed an enlarged gland that was isointense with liver on T1-weighted images and had increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Stranding of the periadrenal and subcutaneous fat of the right flank was present on T2-weighted images and appeared as streaky areas of increased signal intensity.Radiology 01/1989; 169(3):701-3. · 6.34 Impact Factor
Article: Traumatic adrenal injuries.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We determined the prevalence, management and general prognosis of blunt isolated and nonisolated adrenal injuries in a pediatric population. We analyzed trauma data from a pediatric institution for the period 1991 to 1998 to identify patients with blunt traumatic adrenal injuries diagnosed by computerized tomography. We then performed a detailed chart review to obtain data on the presence of concomitant intra-abdominal and extra-abdominal injuries, transfusion requirements, intensive care unit monitoring requirements, hospital course and the presence of followup studies. Among 9,199 pediatric trauma cases we identified 20 adrenal injuries (0.22%), of which 15 (75%) were nonisolated and 5 (25%) were isolated. The right adrenal gland was injured in 17 (85%) of the 20 patients. In the 15 nonisolated adrenal injuries concomitant injury to the liver (13 cases, 87%) and ipsilateral kidney (8 cases, 53%) were most common. Three (60%) of the 5 patients with isolated adrenal injury required transfusion for adrenal hemorrhage. No patient required intensive care unit monitoring or operative intervention. Only 2 (10%) of the 20 patients underwent followup computerized tomography, both of whom had resolution of the adrenal injury. In the pediatric population blunt adrenal injuries are rare and typically present as part of a multiorgan trauma. The right adrenal gland is more likely to be injured, with liver trauma as the most commonly associated injury, followed by ipsilateral renal injury. Although there is a possibility of significant adrenal hemorrhage requiring transfusion, adrenal trauma is typically self-limited and does not require intensive care monitoring or operative intervention.The Journal of Urology 05/2005; 173(4):1330-1. · 3.70 Impact Factor