Enhancing oxygen tension and cellular function in alginate cell encapsulation devices through the use of perfluorocarbons.
ABSTRACT Encapsulation devices are often hindered by the inability to achieve sufficient oxygen levels for sustaining long-term cell survival both in vivo and in vitro. We have investigated the use of synthetic oxygen carriers in alginate gels to improve metabolic activity and viability of HepG2 cells over time. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), specifically perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA) and perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB), were emulsified with alginate and used to encapsulate HepG2 cells in a spherical geometry. Cellular state was assessed using the MTT assay and Live/Dead stain as well as through analysis of both lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels which are indirect indicators of oxygen availability. Addition of 1% surfactant resulted in stable emulsions with evenly dispersed PFC droplets of the order of 1-2 microm in diameter, with no influence on cell viability. Both PFCs evaluated were effective in increasing cellular metabolic activity over alginate-only gels. The presence of 10% PFOB significantly increased cellular growth rate by 10% and reduced both intracellular LDH and extracellular lactate levels by 20-40%, improving glucose utilization efficiency. The characteristic drop in cellular metabolic activity upon encapsulation was eliminated with addition of 10% PFC and viability was better maintained throughout the bead, with a significant decrease in necrotic core size. Results were consistent under a physiologically relevant 5% oxygen environment. The incorporation of PFC synthetic oxygen carriers into encapsulation matrices has been successfully applied to improve cell function and viability with implication for a variety of tissue engineering applications.
Article: In vitro evaluation of a multi-layer radial-flow bioreactor based on galactosylated chitosan nanofiber scaffolds.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clinical use of bioartificial livers (BAL) strongly relies on the development of bioreactors. In this study, we developed a multi-layer radial-flow bioreactor based on galactosylated chitosan nanofiber scaffolds and evaluated its efficacy in vitro. The bioreactor contains 65 layers of stacked flat plates, on which the nanofiber scaffolds were electrospinned for hepatocyte immobilization and aggregation. Culture medium containing pig red blood cells (RBCs) was perfused from the center to periphery, so that exchange materials are sufficient to afford enough oxygen. We determined the parameters for hepatocyte-specific function and general metabolism and also measured the oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Microscope and scanned electron microscopy observation showed a tight adhesion between cells and scaffolds. Compared with the control (bioreactors without nanofiber scaffolds), the number of adhered cells in our bioreactor was 1.59-fold; the protein-synthesis capacity of hepatocytes was 1.73-fold and urea was 2.86-fold. Moreover, the OCR of bioreactors with RBCs was about 1.91-fold that of bioreactors without RBCs. The galactosylated chitosan nanofiber scaffolds introduced into our new bioreactor greatly enhanced cell adhesion and function, and the RBCs added into the culture medium were able to afford enough oxygen for hepatocytes. Importantly, our new bioreactor showed an exciting efficiency, and it may afford the short-term support of patients with hepatic failure.Biomaterials 07/2009; 30(27):4533-8. · 7.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Improved methods have recently been developed for assessing islet viability and quantity in human islet preparations for transplantation, and these measurements have proven useful for predicting transplantation outcome. The objectives of this study were to adapt these methods for use with microencapsulated islets, to verify that they provide meaningful quantitative measurements, and to test them with two model systems: (1) barium alginate and (2) barium alginate containing a 70% (w/v) perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion, which presents challenges to use of these assays and is of interest in its own right as a means for reducing oxygen supply limitations to encapsulated tissue. Mitochondrial function was assessed by oxygen consumption rate measurements, and the analysis of data was modified to account for the increased solubility of oxygen in the PFC-alginate capsules. Capsules were dissolved and tissue recovered for nuclei counting to measure the number of cells. Capsule volume was determined from alginate or PFC content and used to normalize measurements. After low oxygen culture for 2 days, islets in normal alginate lost substantial viable tissue and displayed necrotic cores, whereas most of the original oxygen consumption rate was recovered with PFC alginate, and little necrosis was observed. All nuclei were recovered with normal alginate, but some nuclei from nonrespiring cells were lost with PFC alginate. Biocompatibility tests revealed toxicity at the islet periphery associated with the lipid emulsion used to provide surfactants during the emulsification process. We conclude that these new assay methods can be applied to islets encapsulated in materials as complex as PFC-alginate. Measurements made with these materials revealed that enhancement of oxygen permeability of the encapsulating material with a concentrated PFC emulsion improves survival of encapsulated islets under hypoxic conditions, but reformulation of the PFC emulsion is needed to reduce toxicity.Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 11/2010; 17(4):435-49. · 4.64 Impact Factor