Use of Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to screen PTPN21: no association with Graves' disease.
ABSTRACT The protein-tyrosine-phosphate nonreceptor 22 gene (PTPN22) has recently been identified as a susceptibility locus for a number of autoimmune diseases including Graves' disease (GD). PTPN21 is another member of the PTPN family and its gene PTPN21 maps to the first reported region of genetic linkage to GD, GD-1, on chromosome 14q31. The aim of this study was to determine whether PTPN21 is acting as a GD susceptibility locus in UK Caucasian subjects.
A case control association study of seven Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1469602, rs8007288, rs1998670, rs11622270, rs2274736, rs2295136 and rs366476) selected to predict 51 un-genotyped polymorphisms present within PTPN21.
Unrelated Caucasian patients of UK origin with GD and ethnically and gender matched control subjects with no family history of autoimmune disease were recruited. In total, DNA was obtained from 768 GD patients and 768 control subjects.
No association of any of the seven Tag SNPs was detected with GD. Preliminary evidence of association of rs2274736 was found with younger age of GD onset (0-30 years) (OR = 1. 48 [95% CI = 1.11-1.97]). No other correlations with clinical phenotype or previously established susceptibility loci were detected.
Using a Tag SNP approach we screened PTPN21 as a susceptibility locus for GD and found no evidence for association with disease. Preliminary evidence for association of rs2274736 with younger age of GD onset requires replication in similar sized data sets to exclude a false positive result. Methods such as the Tag SNP approach significantly reduce the amount of genotyping required when screening candidate loci, including those within regions of chromosomal linkage.
Conference Paper: Optimal small kernels for edge detection[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An algorithm is developed for defining small kernels that are conditioned on the important components of the imaging process: the nature of the scene, the point-spread function of the image-gathering device, sampling effects, noise, and post-filter interpolation. Subject to constraints on the spatial support of the kernel, the algorithm generates the kernal values that minimize the expected mean-square error of the estimate of the scene characteristic. This development is consistent with the derivation of the spatially unconstrained Wiener characteristic filter, but leads to a small, spatially constrained convolution kernel. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the algorithm is more flexible than traditional small-kernel techniques and yields more accurate estimatesPattern Recognition, 1990. Proceedings., 10th International Conference on; 07/1990
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ABSTRACT: The Programmed Cell Death 1 gene (PDCD1) on chromosome 2q37.3 encodes PD-1 which is involved in providing a negative signal to activated T cells. Large case-control studies have shown association of PDCD1 with several autoimmune diseases although, to date, no such studies have been performed for Graves' disease (GD). The objective of our study was to investigate eight tag SNPs representing the majority of common variation in PDCD1 within a well-characterized large UK Caucasian GD dataset. A case control association study of eight polymorphisms. 2671 Graves' disease patients and 864 controls. Tests for association with disease. No association with disease was seen for any of the +4163, +5049, +5318, +5640, +5678 and +7078 SNPs genotyped in this study. Association was detected between the +2375 SNP (P = 0.021, OR = 1.14 [95% CI = 1.01-1.29]) and GD and a small protective effect was seen with the +6799 SNP genotypes (P = 0.028, OR = 0.77 [95% CI = 0.58-1.03]). This study has, for the first time, shown that small effects within PDCD1 may contribute towards the development of GD, supporting the hypothesis that much of the currently unknown genetic contribution to GD could be due to several small genetic effects with ORs 1.2. Replication of this result is now needed to confirm our findings and justify more detailed fine mapping of a primary aetiological variant in this gene region.Clinical Endocrinology 08/2007; 67(1):125-8. · 3.40 Impact Factor