A pilot study of barriers to medication adherence in schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Interventions to improve adherence to antipsychotic medication are needed. The aims of the current study were to identify the most common barriers to medication adherence in a cohort of patients receiving outpatient and inpatient treatment for an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia, compare clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with lower versus higher numbers of barriers, and characterize patients most likely to be nonadherent to antipsychotic medication.
The present study analyzed data collected during the Schizophrenia Guidelines Project (SGP), a multisite study of strategies to implement practice guidelines that was funded by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and conducted from March 1999 to October 2000. Nurse coordinators had conducted clinical assessments and performed an intervention designed to improve medication adherence by addressing barriers to adherence. Data on patient symptoms, functioning, and side effects had been obtained using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Schizophrenia Outcomes Module, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, and the Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS). Administrative data were used to identify patients with an ICD-9 code for schizophrenia. A total of 153 patients who met this criterion and participated in the intervention arm of the SGP had complete data available for analysis in the current study.
The most common patient-reported barriers were related to the stigma of taking medications, adverse drug reactions, forgetfulness, and lack of social support. Bivariate analysis showed that patients with high barriers were significantly more likely to be nonadherent (p < or =.02), to have problems with alcohol or drug use (p =.02), to have higher PANSS total scores (p =.03), and to have higher mean BAS scores (p =.02). Logistic regression showed that lower patient education level (odds ratio [OR] = 3.95, p =.02), substance abuse (OR = 3.24, p =.01), high PANSS total scores (OR = 1.02, p =.05), and high barriers (OR = 2.3, p =.05) were significantly associated with the probability of nonadherence.
It may be possible to identify patients most likely to benefit from adherence intervention. The data presented here will help to inform future research of clinical interventions to improve medication adherence in schizophrenia and help to stimulate further work in this area.
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ABSTRACT: Background Non-adherence with antipsychotic medication is a frequently occurring problem, particularly among patients with psychotic disorders. Prior research has generally shown encouraging results for interventions based on `Contingency Management¿ (CM), in which desirable behaviour is encouraged by providing rewards contingent upon the behaviour. However, little is known about the application of CM on medication adherence in patients with psychotic disorders. An earlier pilot-study by our study group showed promising results in reducing admission days and increasing adherence. The current study is a randomized controlled trial concerning the effectiveness of a CM procedure called `Money for Medication¿ (M4M), aimed at improving adherence with antipsychotic depot medication in psychotic disorder patients.Methods/DesignOutpatients (n =168) with a psychotic disorder will be randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n =84), receiving a financial reward for each accepted antipsychotic medication depot, or the control group (n =84), receiving treatment as usual without financial rewards. Patients are included regardless of their previous adherence. The intervention has a duration of twelve months. During the subsequent six months follow-up, the effects of discontinuing the intervention on depot acceptance will be assessed.The primary goal of this study is to assess the effectiveness of providing financial incentives for improving adherence with antipsychotic depot medication (during and after the intervention). The primary outcome measure is the percentage of accepted depots in comparison to prescription. Secondary, we will consider alternative measures of medication acceptance, i.e. the longest period of uninterrupted depot acceptance and the time expired before depot is taken. Additionally, the effectiveness of the experimental intervention will be assessed in terms of psychosocial functioning, substance use, medication side-effects, quality of life, motivation, cost-utility and patients¿ and clinicians¿ attitudes towards M4M.DiscussionThis RCT assesses the effectiveness and side-effects of financial incentives in improving adherence with antipsychotic depot medication in patients with psychotic disorders. This study is designed to assess whether M4M is an effective intervention to improve patients¿ acceptance of their antipsychotic depot medication and to examine how this intervention contributes to patients¿ functioning and wellbeing.Trial Registration: NTR2350.BMC Psychiatry 12/2014; 14(1):343. DOI:10.1186/s12888-014-0343-3 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this naturalistic non-interventional study were to quantify the level of stigma and discrimination in persons with schizophrenia and to test for potential associations between different types of stigma and adherence to antipsychotics. Antipsychotic medication use was electronically monitored with a Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS(®)) for 12 months in 111 outpatients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis (DSM-IV). Stigma was assessed at endpoint using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC). Single DISC items that were most frequently reported included social relationships in making/keeping friends (71%) and in the neighborhood (69%). About half of the patients experienced discrimination by their families, in intimate relationships, regarding employment and by mental health staff. Most patients (88%) wanted to conceal their mental health problems from others; 70% stated that anticipated discrimination resulted in avoidance of close personal relationships. Non-adherence (MEMS(®) adherence≤0.80) was observed in 30 (27.3%). When DISC subscale scores (SD) were entered in separate regression models, neither experienced nor anticipated stigma was associated with adherence. Our data do not support an association between stigma and non-adherence. Further studies in other settings are needed as experiences of stigma and levels of adherence and their potential associations might vary by a healthcare system or cultural and sociodemographic contexts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Psychiatry Research 10/2014; 220(3):811-817. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.10.016 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Non-adherence to antipsychotic medication has a negative impact on the course of illness resulting in increased risk of relapse, rehospitalization and suicide, and increased costs to healthcare systems. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with medication adherence among patients with schizophrenia at Ayder Referral Hospital and Mekelle Hospital in Mekelle, Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey in which sociodemographic characteristics, drug attitudes, insight and side effects were measured and explored in terms of their relationship with medication adherence. A structured questionnaire as a data collection tool was used. Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS Version 20.0. Results A total of 393 patients participated, 26.5% were non-adherent to their antipsychotic medication. The factors significantly associated with better adherence were positive treatment attitudes (AOR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.26, 1.55), fewer side effects (AOR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94, 0.99), awareness of illness (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.85) and the ability to relabel symptoms (AOR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.07). However, khat chewers (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.68), being illiterate (AOR = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.47) and older age group (AOR = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.16) were associated with less medication adherence. Conclusions A high prevalence of medication non-adherence was found among patients with schizophrenia. Intervention strategies focused on educating the patients to better understand the illness, medications and their potential side effects might be useful in improving adherence to antipsychotic medication treatment.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120560.. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120560 · 3.53 Impact Factor