Quantitative analysis of wobble splicing indicates that it is not tissue specific.
ABSTRACT Alternative splicing is an important mechanism mediating the function of genes in multicellular organisms. Recently, we discovered a new splicing-junction wobble mechanism that generates subtle alterations in mRNA by randomly selecting tandem 5' and 3' splicing-junction sites. Here we developed a sensitive approach to identify such splicing-junction wobble isoforms using polymerase chain reaction amplification with fluorescence-labeled primers encompassing the wobble-splicing boundary and capillary electrophoresis. Using the ING4 wobble isoforms as an example, we demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis can precisely separate DNA fragments with a small difference in size (<3 nt) and can be used to quantify the expression ratio, which thus measures the distribution of each splicing-junction wobble isoform in tissues. Based on our analyses of several genes, the relative ratio of each wobble-splicing isoform tends to be constant among various tissues. The occasional observed tissue heterogeneity of wobble-splicing transcripts can be generated only by genomic single-nucleotide polymorphisms around the splicing junction.
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ABSTRACT: Alternative splicing (AS) involving NAGNAG tandem acceptors is an evolutionarily widespread class of AS. Recent predictions of alternative acceptor usage reported better results for acceptors separated by larger distances, than for NAGNAGs. To improve the latter, we aimed at the use of Bayesian networks (BN), and extensive experimental validation of the predictions. Using carefully constructed training and test datasets, a balanced sensitivity and specificity of >or=92% was achieved. A BN trained on the combined dataset was then used to make predictions, and 81% (38/47) of the experimentally tested predictions were verified. Using a BN learned on human data on six other genomes, we show that while the performance for the vertebrate genomes matches that achieved on human data, there is a slight drop for Drosophila and worm. Lastly, using the prediction accuracy according to experimental validation, we estimate the number of yet undiscovered alternative NAGNAGs. State of the art classifiers can produce highly accurate prediction of AS at NAGNAGs, indicating that we have identified the major features of the 'NAGNAG-splicing code' within the splice site and its immediate neighborhood. Our results suggest that the mechanism behind NAGNAG AS is simple, stochastic, and conserved among vertebrates and beyond.Nucleic Acids Research 05/2009; 37(11):3569-79. · 8.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alternative splicing is an important mechanism mediating the diversified functions of genes in multicellular organisms, and such event occurs in around 40-60% of human genes. Recently, a new splice-junction wobbling mechanism was proposed that subtle modifications exist in mRNA maturation by alternatively choosing at 5'- GTNGT and 3'- NAGNAG, which created single amino acid insertion and deletion isoforms. By browsing the Alternative Splicing Database information, we observed that most 3' alternative splice site choices occur within six nucleotides of the dominant splice site and the incidence significantly decreases further away from the dominant acceptor site. Although a lower frequency of alternative splicing occurs within the intronic region (alternative splicing at the proximal AG) than in the exonic region (alternative splicing at the distal AG), alternative AG sites located within the intronic region show stronger potential as the acceptor. These observations revealed that the choice of 3' splice sites during 3' splicing junction wobbling could depend on the distance between the duplicated AG and the branch point site (BPS). Further mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that the distance of AG-to-AG and BPS-to-AG can greatly influence 3' splice site selection. Knocking down a known alternative splicing regulator, hSlu7, failed to affect wobble splicing choices. Our results implied that nucleotide distance between proximal and distal AG sites has an important regulatory function. In this study, we showed that occurrence of 3' wobble splicing occurs in a distance-dependent manner and that most of this wobble splicing is probably caused by steric hindrance from a factor bound at the neighboring tandem motif sequence.BMC Molecular Biology 01/2010; 11:34. · 2.86 Impact Factor