Risk and Protective Factors for Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants and Methamphetamine among Adolescents
ABSTRACT This article reports on correlates of past-year nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and methamphetamine among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years.
Data from the 2002 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were used to conduct logistic regression analyses of the demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral correlates of illicit stimulant use. The sample size was 17,709.
Analyses revealed that mental health treatment utilization and use of marijuana and other illegal drugs were correlated with nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and methamphetamine among adolescents. Females and adolescents who reported low religiosity, binge drinking, and selling drugs were more likely to use methamphetamine than were males or individuals who did not report these attitudes or behaviors. Additionally, black adolescents were less likely than white adolescents to use methamphetamine. Alternatively, adolescents who reported high family conflict and sensation-seeking were more likely than their counterparts to use prescription stimulants nonmedically, and Hispanic adolescents were less likely to use prescription stimulants nonmedically than white adolescents.
Risk for illicit use of stimulants varies by demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors. Different intervention mechanisms, populations, and settings should be targeted to prevent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants versus methamphetamine among adolescents.
- SourceAvailable from: Mathew V Kiang
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- "Level of religious importance (in one's life) is an indicator of religious salience and is often examined in relation to risk behavior (Bartkowski and Xu 2007). Personal importance of religion has been found to be protective against marijuana use in adolescents (Sinha et al. 2007), and low importance has been found to be a risk factor for use of cocaine, ecstasy, and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (Degenhardt et al. 2007; Herman-Stahl et al. 2006). Other studies have found that private religiosity, which includes level of religious importance, is more protective against substance use than public religiosity , such as attendance (Bartkowski and Xu 2007; Nonnemaker et al. 2003). "
ABSTRACT: Religiosity is a protective factor against illicit drug use, but further investigation is needed to delineate which components of religiosity are protective against use. A racially diverse sample (N = 962) was surveyed about religiosity, exposure to users, and recent use of marijuana, powder cocaine, ecstasy, and nonmedical use of opioids and amphetamine. Results suggest that identifying as Agnostic increased odds of use for each of the five drugs; however, this effect disappeared when controlling for religious importance and attendance. High levels of religious attendance were protective against recent use of marijuana and cocaine, but protective effects diminished when controlling for exposure to users, which was a robust predictor of use of every drug. Religion is a protective mechanism against drug use, but this effect may diminish in light of exposure to users. Alternative preventative methods need to be directed toward individuals who are not religious or are highly exposed to users.Journal of Religion and Health 11/2012; 53(3). DOI:10.1007/s10943-012-9660-3 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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- "The relatively lower reliability for psychosocial variables can be attributed to the influence of adolescents' daily interactions and exposure to media (SAMHSA 2010). For the purposes of the present study, some of the psychosocial risk and protective factors were formed into composite variables in accordance with the literature (e.g., Gardner and Shoemaker 1989; Herman-Stahl et al. 2006); these composite variables were subjected to reliability tests. "
ABSTRACT: Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and Mixed-Race adolescents 12-17 years of age, using combined datasets from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH 2006-2009, N = 46,675, 48.77 % female). Native American adolescents displayed the highest rate of past-month binge drinking and past-year illicit drug use (14.06 and 30.91 %, respectively). Results of a logistic regression that included seven predictors of social bonding, individual views of substance use, and delinquent peer affiliations showed that friendships with delinquent peers and negative views of substance use were associated significantly with both substance abuse outcomes among White and Mixed-Race adolescents and, to a lesser extent, Native American adolescents. The association of parental disapproval with binge drinking was stronger for White than for Native American adolescents. Greater attention to specific measures reflecting racial groups' contextual and historical differences may be needed to delineate mechanisms that discourage substance abuse among at-risk minority adolescent populations.Journal of Youth and Adolescence 07/2012; 41(11):1426-41. DOI:10.1007/s10964-012-9789-0 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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- "We also include measures associated with three popular theories of adolescent substance use: Social Control (Hirschi, 1969), Social Learning (Akers, 1985), and General Strain (Agnew, 1992). Prior research has shown that individuals with weaker bonds to parents and school (Ford, 2009; Herman-Stahl et al., 2006; Sung, Richter, Vaughan, Johnson, & Thom, 2005), with peers who report substance use and access to individuals with permissive attitudes towards drugs (Ford, 2008b; Sung et al., 2005), and who experience higher levels of strain (Ford & Schroeder, 2009) are at an increased risk for prescription drug misuse. Finally, we include measures of substance use as prior research has identified substance use as a robust correlate of prescription drug misuse (Arkes & Iguchi, 2008; Ford, 2009; Herman-Stahl et al., 2006; Sung et al., 2005; Wu et al., 2008). "
ABSTRACT: The current research examines correlates of Ambien misuse among adolescents. Given the recent popularity of prescription drug misuse, the known risks associated with prescription drugs, the fact that Ambien is widely prescribed, and the relative lack of research on prescription sedative misuse, we believe this research is important. The current study fills this important gap in the literature by examining data from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which includes a sample of more than 17,000 adolescents ages 12 to 17 that is generalizable to the non-institutionalized population of the United States. The prevalence of lifetime Ambien misuse in the sample was 1.4%. The current research identified several significant risk factors for Ambien misuse: age, race, income, religiosity, delinquency, depression, social bonding, peer substance use, attitudes toward substance use, strain, and other substance use. Implications and limitations of the current research are discussed.Addictive behaviors 06/2012; 37(12):1389-94. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.06.015 · 2.76 Impact Factor