Identification of apolipoprotein A-I as a "STOP" signal for myopia.
ABSTRACT Good visual acuity requires that the axial length of the ocular globe is matched to the refractive power of the cornea and lens to focus the images of distant objects onto the retina. During the growth of the juvenile eye, this is achieved through the emmetropization process that adjusts the ocular axial length to compensate for the refractive changes that occur in the anterior segment. A failure of the emmetropization process can result in either excessive or insufficient axial growth, leading to myopia or hyperopia, respectively. Emmetropization is mainly regulated by the retina, which generates two opposite signals: "GO/GROW" signals to increase axial growth and "STOP" signals to block it. The presence of GO/GROW and STOP signals was investigated by a proteomics analysis of the retinas from chicken with experimental myopia and hyperopia. Of 18 differentially expressed proteins that were identified, five displayed an expression profile corresponding to GO/GROW signals, and two corresponded to STOP signals. Western blotting confirmed that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has the characteristics of a STOP signal both in the retina as well as in the fibrous sclera. In accordance with this, intraocular application of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist GW7647 resulted in up-regulation of apoA-I levels and in a significant reduction of experimental myopia. In conclusion, using a comprehensive functional proteomics analysis of chicken ocular growth models we identified targets for ocular growth control. The correlation of elevated apoA-I levels with reduced ocular axial growth points toward a functional relationship with the observed morphological changes of the eye.
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ABSTRACT: The mechanism of axial elongation in the myopic eyeball remains to be elucidated. It is known that the expression profile for some proteins in the aqueous humor (AH) changes in some diseases. Accordingly, determinations of these AH proteins may serve to understand their potential role in this pathogenesis. To identify the possible mechanism in myopia development, a proteomic analysis of the AH composition from high myopic eyes (patients) was performed and compared with that of the AH composition from non-myopic cataract eyes (controls). Total protein concentration in AH was determined by the Bradford method, and separation profiles were analyzed by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Protein in gel was determined by silver stain, and the separation profiles were analyzed to assess spot density changes between myopia and non-myopia patients. These spots in gel were isolated and identified by mass spectrometry. The total protein concentration in AH with high myopia was significantly greater than that of non-myopia. A total of six spots were significantly increased in 2D gels from high myopia. The spots were derived from albumin, transthyretin, and a vitamin D-binding protein. The protein composition in AH was significantly different between myopia and non-myopia. The identified proteins could be a potential biomarker for high myopia development and may play a role in the mechanisms of myopia ocular axial elongation.Molecular vision 02/2008; 14:370-7. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The retina plays an important regulatory role in ocular growth. To screen for new retinal candidate genes that could be involved in the inhibition of ocular growth, we used chick microarrays to analyze the changes in retinal mRNA expression after myopic defocus was imposed by positive lens wear. Four male white leghorn chicks, aged nine days, wore +6.9D spectacle lenses over both eyes for 24 h. Four untreated age-matched male chicks from the same batch served as controls. The chicks were euthanized, and retinas from both eyes of each chick were pooled. RNA was isolated and labeled cRNA was prepared. These samples were hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays with more than 28,000 characterized genes. After comparison of multiple normalization methods, GC-RMA and a false-discovery rate of 6% was chosen for normalization of the data. The expression of 16 candidate genes was further studied, using semiquantitative real-time RT-PCR. In addition, the expression of the mRNA of some of these candidate genes was assessed in chicks that wore either +6.9D lenses for 4 h or -7D lenses for 24 h. 123 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed (p<0.05; at least 1.5-fold change in expression level), with an absolute mean fold-change of 1.97+/-1.16 (mean+/-standard deviation). Nine of the sixteen genes that were examined by real-time RT-PCR were validated. Regardless of whether positive or negative lenses were worn, six of these nine genes were regulated in the same direction after 24 h: arginyltransferase 1 (ATE1), E74-like factor 1 (ELF1), growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), SHQ1 homolog (S. cerevisiae) (SHQ1), spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1), prepro-urotensin II-related peptide (pp-URP). Three genes responded differently to positive and negative lens treatment after 24 h: ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 10 (ABCC10), CD226 molecule (CD226) and oxysterol binding protein 2 (OSBP2). The validated genes that were regulated only by myopic defocus may represent elements in a pathway generating a "stop-signal" for eye growth. Some of the genes identified in this study have so far not been described in the retina. Further investigation of their function may improve the understanding of the signaling cascades in emmetropization. More general, published microarray data are variable among different animal models (mouse, chick, monkeys), tissues (retina, retina/retinal pigment epithelium), treatments (diffusers, lenses, lid-suture), as well as different treatment durations (hours, days), and comparisons remain difficult. That only a small number of common genes were found emphasizes the need for careful normalization of the experimental parameters.Molecular vision 01/2008; 14:1589-99. · 2.20 Impact Factor
Article: Alterations in protein expression in tree shrew sclera during development of lens-induced myopia and recovery.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During the development of, and recovery from, negative lens-induced myopia there is regulated remodeling of the scleral extracellular matrix (ECM) that controls the extensibility of the sclera. Difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) was used to identify and categorize proteins whose levels are altered in this process. Two groups of five tree shrews started monocular lens wear 24 days after eye opening (days of visual experience [VE]). The lens-induced myopia (LIM) group wore a -5 D lens for 4 days. The recovery (REC) group wore a -5 D lens for 11 days and then recovered for 4 days. Two normal groups (28 and 39 days of VE; n = 5 each) were also examined, age-matched to each of the treatment groups. Refractive and A-scan measures confirmed the effect of the treatments. Scleral proteins were isolated and resolved by DIGE. Proteins that differed in abundance were identified by mass spectrometry. Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to investigate potential biological pathway interactions. During normal development (28-39 days of VE), eight proteins decreased and one protein increased in relative abundance. LIM-treated eyes were myopic and longer than control eyes; LIM-control eyes were slightly myopic compared with 28N eyes, indicating a yoking effect. In both the LIM-treated and the LIM-control eyes, there was a general downregulation from normal of proteins involved in transcription, cell adhesion, and protein synthesis. Additional proteins involved in cell adhesion, actin cytoskeleton, transcriptional regulation, and ECM structural proteins differed in the LIM-treated eyes versus normal but did not differ in the control eyes versus normal. REC-treated eyes were recovering from the induced myopia. REC-control eye refractions were not significantly different from the 39N eyes, and few proteins differed from age-matched normal eyes. The balance of protein expression in the REC-treated eyes, compared with normal eyes and REC-control eyes, shifted toward upregulation or a return to normal levels of proteins involved in cell adhesion, cell division, cytoskeleton, and ECM structural proteins, including upregulation of several cytoskeleton-related proteins not affected during myopia development. The DIGE procedure revealed new proteins whose abundance is altered during myopia development and recovery. Many of these are involved in cell-matrix adhesions, cytoskeleton, and transcriptional regulation and extend our understanding of the remodeling that controls the extensibility of the sclera. Reductions in these proteins during minus lens wear may produce the increased scleral viscoelasticity that results in faster axial elongation. Recovery is not a mirror image of lens-induced myopia-many protein levels, decreased during LIM, returned to normal, or slightly above normal, and additional cytoskeleton proteins were upregulated. However, no single protein or pathway appeared to be responsible for the scleral changes during myopia development or recovery.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 01/2012; 53(1):322-36. · 3.43 Impact Factor