Retirement patterns from career employment.
ABSTRACT This article investigates how older Americans leave their career jobs and estimates the extent of intermediate labor force activity (bridge jobs) between full-time work on a career job and complete labor-force withdrawal.
Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we explored the work histories and retirement patterns of a cohort of retirees aged 51 to 61 in 1992 during a 10-year period in both cross-sectional and longitudinal contexts. We examined determinants of retirement patterns in a multinomial logistic regression model.
We found that a majority of older Americans with career jobs retire gradually, in stages, rather than all at once. We also found that the utilization of bridge jobs was more common among younger respondents, respondents without defined-benefit pension plans, and respondents at both the lower and upper ends of the wage distribution.
Older Americans are now working longer than pre-1980s trends would have predicted. Given concerns about the traditional sources of retirement income (Social Security, employer pensions, and prior savings), older Americans may have to rely more on earnings. This article suggests that many are already doing so by moving to bridge jobs after leaving their career employment.
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ABSTRACT: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415829090/ This chapter begins by outlining the salient features of Spain’s socio-demographic context, in particular the marked ageing of the population and the foreseeable rise in the dependency rate in the coming years, as well as the immediate impact of these trends on the labor market and retirement and pension systems. We then go on to look at the conditioning factors which affect work-life extension policies and practices, and the obstacles in the way of their adoption. In the third place, we provide data on early and compulsory retirement in Spain in recent years, and a description of the legal alternatives available to those wishing to continue working, such as partial or flexible retirement. Finally, we sketch the current state of work-life extension in Spain, illustrating the scant possibilities available and experiences of voluntary working after retirement. The chapter ends with some conclusions and our recommendations on the future of bridge employment in Spain.Bridge Employment: A Research Handbook, 1ª edited by Carlos-María Alcover, Gabriela Topa, Emma Parry, Franco Fraccaroli, Marco Depolo, 04/2014: chapter Bridge employment in Spain. A possible option to postpone retirement: pages 115-137; Routledge., ISBN: 978-0-415-82909-0
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ABSTRACT: Aging nurse faculty members are vital human resources who serve as educators, researchers, and leaders within baccalaureate nursing (BSN) programs. On average, aging nurse faculty members are over 50 years of age and face key retirement decisions over the next decade. The purpose of this study was to begin to build substantive theory about academic nurse leaders' perceptions of extending the academic working life of aging nurse faculty members. Nine academic nurse leaders from BSN programs nationwide were interviewed in this grounded theory study. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Four categories emerged: valuing aging nurse faculty, enduring environmental challenges, recognizing stakeholder incongruence, and readjusting. Findings reveal that aging nurse faculty members are highly valued by academic nurse leaders, bringing wisdom, experience, and institutional, historical, and cultural awareness to their many roles. Yet, some aging nurse faculty fail to keep knowledge, skills, and teaching modes current, which is problematic given the multiple environmental challenges that academic nurse leaders face. Stakeholder incongruence arises as a mismatch between the needs of the BSN program and the skills and contributions of aging nurse faculty members. BSN programs, program leaders, and aging nurse faculty members can lessen incongruence by readjusting to address the pressures, tensions, and ongoing change.Journal of professional nursing: official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing 01/2014; 30(1):34–42. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Americans are living healthier and longer lives, but the shifting age distribution is straining existing and projected social welfare protections for older adults (e.g., Social Security, Medicare). One solution is to delay retirement. Another is an alternative to "total leisure" retirement -- an "encore" stage of paid or unpaid engagement coming after career jobs but before infirmities associated with old age. We draw on gendered life-course themes together with data from the American Time Use Survey (2003-2009) to examine the real time American men and women ages 50-75 apportion to paid work and unpaid volunteer work on an average day, as well as factors predicting their time allocations. We find that while full-time employment declines after the 50s, many Americans allot time to more limited engagements - working part time, being self-employed, volunteering, helping out - through and even beyond their 60s. Caring for a child or infirm adult reduces the odds of paid work but not volunteering. While time working for pay declines with age (though more slowly for men than women), time volunteering does not. Older men and women in poor health, without a college degree, with a disability or SSI income are the least likely to be publicly engaged. This social patterning illustrates that while the ideal of an encore of paid or unpaid voluntary, flexible, and meaningful engagement is an emerging reality for some, it appears less attainable for others. This suggests the importance of organizational and public policy innovations offering all Americans a range of encore opportunities.Social Problems 05/2013; 60(2). · 1.23 Impact Factor