Concentration-dependent modulation of amyloid-beta in vivo and in vitro using the gamma-secretase inhibitor, LY-450139
ABSTRACT LY-450139 is a gamma-secretase inhibitor shown to have efficacy in multiple cellular and animal models. Paradoxically, robust elevations of plasma amyloid-beta (Abeta) have been reported in dogs and humans after administration of subefficacious doses. The present study sought to further evaluate Abeta responses to LY-450139 in the guinea pig, a nontransgenic model that has an Abeta sequence identical to that of human. Male guinea pigs were treated with LY-450139 (0.2-60 mg/kg), and brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and plasma Abeta levels were characterized at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 14 h postdose. Low doses significantly elevated plasma Abeta levels at early time points, with return to baseline within hours. Higher doses inhibited Abeta levels in all compartments at early time points, but elevated plasma Abeta levels at later time points. To determine whether this phenomenon occurs under steady-state drug exposure, guinea pigs were implanted with subcutaneous minipumps delivering LY-450139 (0.3-30 mg/kg/day) for 5 days. Plasma Abeta was significantly inhibited at 10-30 mg/kg/day, but significantly elevated at 1 mg/kg/day. To further understand the mechanism of Abeta elevation by LY-450139, H4 cells overexpressing the Swedish mutant of amyloid-precursor protein and a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal cell line were studied. In both cellular models, elevated levels of secreted Abeta were observed at subefficacious concentrations, whereas dose-responsive inhibition was observed at higher concentrations. These results suggest that LY-450139 modulates the gamma-secretase complex, eliciting Abeta lowering at high concentrations but Abeta elevation at low concentrations.
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ABSTRACT: The Amyloid Hypothesis states that the cascade of events associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-formation of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, synaptic loss, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline-are triggered by Aβ peptide dysregulation (Kakuda et al., 2006, Sato et al., 2003, Qi-Takahara et al., 2005). Since γ-secretase is critical for Aβ production, many in the biopharmaceutical community focused on γ-secretase as a target for therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease. However, pharmacological approaches to control γ-secretase activity are challenging because the enzyme has multiple, physiologically critical protein substrates. To lower amyloidogenic Aβ peptides without affecting other γ-secretase substrates, the epsilon (ε) cleavage that is essential for the activity of many substrates must be preserved. Small molecule modulators of γ-secretase activity have been discovered that spare the ε cleavage of APP and other substrates while decreasing the production of Aβ(42). Multiple chemical classes of γ-secretase modulators have been identified which differ in the pattern of Aβ peptides produced. Ideally, modulators will allow the ε cleavage of all substrates while shifting APP cleavage from Aβ(42) and other highly amyloidogenic Aβ peptides to shorter and less neurotoxic forms of the peptides without altering the total Aβ pool. Here, we compare chemically distinct modulators for effects on APP processing and in vivo activity.12/2012; 2012:210756. DOI:10.1155/2012/210756
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ABSTRACT: γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) have been developed to reduce amyloid-β (Aβ) production for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease by inhibiting the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, cross-inhibitory activity on the processing of Notch can cause adverse reactions. To avoid these undesirable effects, γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) are being developed to selectively reduce toxic Aβ production without perturbing Notch signaling. As it is also known that GSIs can cause a paradoxical increase of plasma Aβ over the baseline after a transient reduction (known as Aβ-rebound), we asked if GSMs would cause a similar rebound and what the potential mechanism might be. Our studies were performed with one GSI (LY-450139) and two chemically distinct GSMs. Although LY-450139 caused Aβ-rebound as expected in rat plasma, the two GSMs did not. Inhibition of APP processing by LY-450139 induced an accumulation of γ-secretase substrates, α- and β-C-terminal fragments of APP, but neither GSM caused such an accumulation. In conclusion, we discover that GSMs, unlike GSIs, do not cause Aβ-rebound, possibly because of the lack of accumulation of β-C-terminal fragments. GSMs may be superior to GSIs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease not only by sparing Notch signaling but also by avoiding Aβ-rebound.Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2011; 121(2):277-86. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07560.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) varies in size from 39 to 43 amino acids and arises from sequential β- and γ-secretase processing of the amyloid precursor protein. Whereas the non-pathological role for Aβ is yet to be established, there is no disputing that Aβ is now widely regarded as central to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The so named "amyloid cascade hypothesis" states that disease progression is the result of an increased Aβ burden in affected areas of the brain. To elucidate the Aβ role in AD, many analytical approaches have been proposed as suitable tools to investigate not only the total Aβ load but also many other issues that are considered crucial for AD, such as: (i) the aggregation state in which Aβ is present; (ii) its interaction with other species or metals; (iii) its ability to induce oxidative stress; and (iv) its degradative pathways. This review provides an insight into the use of mass spectrometry (MS) in the field of Aβ investigation aimed to assess its role in AD. In particular, the different MS-based approaches applied in vitro and in vivo that can provide detailed information on the above-mentioned issues are reviewed. Moreover, the advantages offered by the MS methods over all the other techniques are highlighted, together with the recent developments and uses of combined analytical approaches to detect and characterize Aβ.Mass Spectrometry Reviews 05/2011; 30(3):347-65. DOI:10.1002/mas.20281 · 8.05 Impact Factor