Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 2.81). 09/2006; 8(4):600-22. DOI: 10.1080/14622200600858166
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To date, we have no valid biomarkers that serve as proxies for tobacco-related disease to test potential reduced exposure products. This paper represents the deliberations of four workgroups that focused on four tobacco-related heath outcomes: Cancer, nonmalignant pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and fetal toxicity. The goal of these workgroups was to identify biomarkers that offer some promise as measures of exposure or toxicity and ultimately may serve as indicators for future disease risk. Recommendations were based on the relationship of the biomarker to what is known about mechanisms of tobacco-related pathogenesis, the extent to which the biomarker differs among smokers and nonsmokers, and the sensitivity of the biomarker to changes in smoking status. Other promising biomarkers were discussed. No existing biomarkers have been demonstrated to be predictive of tobacco-related disease, which highlights the importance and urgency of conducting research in this area.

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    • "e COHb , S - PMA and nicotine equivalents were reduced by 70% , 80% , and 44% in the previous confinement study compared to 50% , 48% and 7% , respectively , in this study . This is noteworthy since a reduction of CC consumption and / or CC tar yields in many studies does not necessarily result in a reduction in biomarkers of expo - sure to HPHC ( Hatsukami et al . , 2006a , b ; Lubin et al . , 2007 ; Joseph et al . , 2008 ) . While in short - term confinement studies , it is possible to obtain accurate data about the types and quantities of cigarettes smoked , longer - term ambulatory studies are reliant on accurate self - report - ing . It would be beneficial to develop and validate a biomarker for dete"
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    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 08/2012; 64(2). DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.08.006 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    • "Although the results show a significantly greater amount of cigarette reduction with the use of the active medicinal nicotine compared with placebo product and potentially a greater facilitation of abstinence (Hughes & Carpenter, 2006), whether this reduction leads to greater cessation compared with an immediate quit smoking approach is unclear. Furthermore, a significant reduction in cigarette smoking may not necessarily translate to a significant reduction in exposure and disease risk (Hatsukami et al., 2006; Hecht et al., 2004). Even with limited scientific data, some organizations (e.g., New York State, SRNT, ATTUD) have petitioned for changes in labeling that would support more flexible use of nicotine replacement products on the grounds that risk of using those products is far lower than tobacco products. "
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    • "Charles et al. (2006 ,2009), Shepperd et al. (2006), Watson et al. (2004), Polzin et al. (2009)). The levels of biomarkers of exposure (typically cigarette smoke constituent metabolites) in urine, saliva and blood can be used to provide an indication of the amount of smoke constituent taken up into the smokers' body (Benowitz, 1996; Hatsukami et al., 2006; St. Charles et al., 2006). "
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