Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 3.3). 09/2006; 8(4):600-22. DOI: 10.1080/14622200600858166
Source: PubMed


To date, we have no valid biomarkers that serve as proxies for tobacco-related disease to test potential reduced exposure products. This paper represents the deliberations of four workgroups that focused on four tobacco-related heath outcomes: Cancer, nonmalignant pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and fetal toxicity. The goal of these workgroups was to identify biomarkers that offer some promise as measures of exposure or toxicity and ultimately may serve as indicators for future disease risk. Recommendations were based on the relationship of the biomarker to what is known about mechanisms of tobacco-related pathogenesis, the extent to which the biomarker differs among smokers and nonsmokers, and the sensitivity of the biomarker to changes in smoking status. Other promising biomarkers were discussed. No existing biomarkers have been demonstrated to be predictive of tobacco-related disease, which highlights the importance and urgency of conducting research in this area.

16 Reads
  • Source
    • "The methods to monitor SHS exposure are mainly relying on the analysis of poisonous gases or chemical compounds related to tobacco smoke, such as carbon monoxide and nicotine derived chemicals5678. A number of potential biomarkers has been complied that are associated with four tobacco-related health outcomes: cancer, nonmalignant pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and fetal toxicity9. Many SHS studies utilize cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, as the biomarker of choice for assessing smoke exposure because of its specificity and longer half-life than nicotine71011121314151617. In general, the cotinine level in nonsmokers is at around the low ng/mL in blood. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.
    Scientific Reports 01/2014; 4:3864. DOI:10.1038/srep03864 · 5.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Hatsukami et al. (2006) presented a review of candidate lung cancer biomarkers (Table 3). They included chemical biomarkers that measure carcinogen exposure and some measure metabolic activation and binding to DNA or proteins via adducts. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Manufacturers have developed prototype cigarettes yielding reduced levels of some tobacco smoke toxicants, when tested using laboratory machine smoking under standardised conditions. For the scientific assessment of modified risk tobacco products, tests that offer objective, reproducible data, which can be obtained in a much shorter time than the requirements of conventional epidemiology are needed. In this review, we consider whether biomarkers of biological effect related to oxidative stress can be used in this role. Based on published data, urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine, thymidine glycol, F2-isoprostanes, serum dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbic acid ratio and carotenoid concentrations show promise, while 4-hydroxynonenal requires further qualification.
    Biomarkers 03/2013; 18(3). DOI:10.3109/1354750X.2013.777116 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "e COHb , S - PMA and nicotine equivalents were reduced by 70% , 80% , and 44% in the previous confinement study compared to 50% , 48% and 7% , respectively , in this study . This is noteworthy since a reduction of CC consumption and / or CC tar yields in many studies does not necessarily result in a reduction in biomarkers of expo - sure to HPHC ( Hatsukami et al . , 2006a , b ; Lubin et al . , 2007 ; Joseph et al . , 2008 ) . While in short - term confinement studies , it is possible to obtain accurate data about the types and quantities of cigarettes smoked , longer - term ambulatory studies are reliant on accurate self - report - ing . It would be beneficial to develop and validate a biomarker for dete"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This randomized, open-label, ambulatory, controlled clinical study investigated biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk and biomarkers of exposure to 10 selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) in cigarette smoke in 316 male and female Polish smokers. Subjects were randomized to continue smoking conventional cigarettes (CC; N=79) or switch to smoking the Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System series-K cigarette (EHCSS-K6; N=237). Biomarker assessments were performed at several time points during the study at baseline and during the 1-month investigational period. The primary biomarkers were high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts. No statistically significant differences in the two primary biomarkers were found between the study groups at the end of the study. End-of-study comparisons of secondary biomarkers between study groups indicated an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and reductions in red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels in the EHCSS-K6 group. All biomarkers of exposure to cigarette smoke HPHC were decreased in the EHCSS-K6 group, despite an increase in cigarette consumption, compared to the CC group. There were no apparent differences in any of the safety assessment parameters between the groups, and the overall incidence of study-related adverse events was low.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 08/2012; 64(2). DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.08.006 · 2.03 Impact Factor
Show more


16 Reads
Available from