Field infestation, life history and demographic parameters of the fruit fly Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Africa.

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, PO Box 30772-00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya.
Bulletin of Entomological Research (Impact Factor: 1.99). 08/2006; 96(4):379-86. DOI: 10.1079/BER2006442
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Field infestation rates of an invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera invadens Drew Tsuruta & White on mango was determined at different localities in Kenya. At most of the locations and especially at low elevations, B. invadens frequently shared the same fruit with the indigenous fruit fly species Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) but often occurred at higher numbers than C. cosyra. The level of infestation varied with location ranging from 3.0 to 97.2 flies per kg of fruit. There was a significant inverse relationship between numbers of flies per kg of fruit and elevation at which fruit was collected, suggesting that B. invadens is a predominantly lowland pest. On an artificial diet, development of B. invadens immatures lasted 25 days; egg incubation required 1.2 days, larval development 11.1 days and puparia-adult development 12.4 days. About 55% of eggs developed to the adult stage. Life expectancy at pupal eclosion was 75.1 days in females and 86.4 days in males. Average net fecundity and net fertility were 794.6 and 608.1 eggs, respectively, while average daily oviposition was 18.2 eggs. Daily population increase was 11% and mean generation time was 31 days. Results are discussed in relation to the biology and ecology of the insect and in the development of mass rearing and control measures for B. invadens.

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    ABSTRACT: Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world.
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    ABSTRACT: Bactrocera invadens, a fruit fly from Asia, is an invasive pest species across Africa. It appears to continue spreading, not only in latitude but also in altitude. To assess its capacity to infest a large variety of hosts and its competition with other fruit fly species, a study along an altitudinal gradient was conducted. At low altitudes, the high abundance in the field and high infestation of B. invadens in different fruit species make it a serious pest. At high altitudes, colonization has started and B. invadens occurs in low numbers by reproducing successfully in high altitude fruits. Overall the abundance and infestation of B. invadens is influenced by its direct competitor Ceratitis rosa and the presence of its preferred host species. C. rosa is still the dominant species in temperate fruits grown at high altitude. Ceratitis cosyra, however, is negatively affected by B. invadens, this species seems to have shifted hosts to avoid competition. The broad host range and competitive potential of B. invadens increase the risk for further spread not only to higher areas, but also to subtropical regions.
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    ABSTRACT: The African invader fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White, generally considered as the most devastating pest of mango was detected in Africa (in Kenya, East Africa) in 2003. It was first detected in Ghana, West Africa in 2005. The perception of mango farmers from Dangbe West and Yilo Krobo districts in Ghana on the pest status and the current management options adopted for the control of this pest was sought by use of a Questionnaire. The survey results indicated that Ghanaian farmers rank B. invadens among the major pests of mango in Ghana. Farmers generally, believed that it is more damaging than other arthropod pest of mango. Possible losses such as loss of market value, rejection of produce at the international markets and quarantine restriction due to the presence of the pest were also reported by the farmers Several strategies are being adopted by farmers for the control of fruit flies (including B.invadens) in Ghana. These strategies include the use of insecticides, cultural control measures, and use of trappings to manage fruit flies. Some of the respondents use a combination of insecticides and cultural practices to reduce the menace of fruit flies. It was evident that farmers adopt multiple strategies to minimize the loses due to fruit flies in an IPM fashion. [Abdullahi G, Obeng-ofori, D, Afre-Nuamah, K, and Billah M. K. Perception of Ghanaian mango farmers on the pest status and current management practices for the control of the African invader fly Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae
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