Field infestation, life history and demographic parameters of the fruit fly Bactrocera invadens (Diptera : Tephritidae) in Africa
ABSTRACT Field infestation rates of an invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera invadens Drew Tsuruta & White on mango was determined at different localities in Kenya. At most of the locations and especially at low elevations, B. invadens frequently shared the same fruit with the indigenous fruit fly species Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) but often occurred at higher numbers than C. cosyra. The level of infestation varied with location ranging from 3.0 to 97.2 flies per kg of fruit. There was a significant inverse relationship between numbers of flies per kg of fruit and elevation at which fruit was collected, suggesting that B. invadens is a predominantly lowland pest. On an artificial diet, development of B. invadens immatures lasted 25 days; egg incubation required 1.2 days, larval development 11.1 days and puparia-adult development 12.4 days. About 55% of eggs developed to the adult stage. Life expectancy at pupal eclosion was 75.1 days in females and 86.4 days in males. Average net fecundity and net fertility were 794.6 and 608.1 eggs, respectively, while average daily oviposition was 18.2 eggs. Daily population increase was 11% and mean generation time was 31 days. Results are discussed in relation to the biology and ecology of the insect and in the development of mass rearing and control measures for B. invadens.
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ABSTRACT: Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world.Journal of Insect Science 07/2014; 14:126. DOI:10.1093/jis/14.1.126 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The African invader fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White, generally considered as the most devastating pest of mango was detected in Africa (in Kenya, East Africa) in 2003. It was first detected in Ghana, West Africa in 2005. The perception of mango farmers from Dangbe West and Yilo Krobo districts in Ghana on the pest status and the current management options adopted for the control of this pest was sought by use of a Questionnaire. The survey results indicated that Ghanaian farmers rank B. invadens among the major pests of mango in Ghana. Farmers generally, believed that it is more damaging than other arthropod pest of mango. Possible losses such as loss of market value, rejection of produce at the international markets and quarantine restriction due to the presence of the pest were also reported by the farmers Several strategies are being adopted by farmers for the control of fruit flies (including B.invadens) in Ghana. These strategies include the use of insecticides, cultural control measures, and use of trappings to manage fruit flies. Some of the respondents use a combination of insecticides and cultural practices to reduce the menace of fruit flies. It was evident that farmers adopt multiple strategies to minimize the loses due to fruit flies in an IPM fashion. [Abdullahi G, Obeng-ofori, D, Afre-Nuamah, K, and Billah M. K. Perception of Ghanaian mango farmers on the pest status and current management practices for the control of the African invader fly Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae
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ABSTRACT: Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White and Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi) are the major fruit fly pests of fruits and vegetables in Africa. The effects of two types of larval diet, liquid and solid (carrot based), on various quality control parameters (pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergence, flight ability, fecundity and fertility) of the two fruit fly species were investigated for five generations. The potential to replace two imported ingredients (yeast and wheat germ oil) with inexpensive and locally available alternatives was also explored. Most of the quality control parameters evaluated (pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergence and fecundity) for B. invadens reared on a liquid diet outperformed those reared on the carrot-based solid diet. In contrast, even though C. fasciventris was able to develop successfully on the liquid diet, three of the quality control parameters evaluated (pupal recovery, pupal weight and fecundity) were significantly lower over the generations when compared with those from insects reared on a solid diet. Except for flight ability, the parameters of B. invadens reared on the diets subsituted with the local yeast were of lower quality compared with those reared on the liquid diet containing the imported yeast. Corn (maize) and soybean oils were promising substitutes for wheat germ oil in the liquid larval diet of B. invadens without compromising any of the quality control parameters.International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 11/2014; 34(S1):S90-S98. DOI:10.1017/S1742758414000113