Field infestation rates of an invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera invadens Drew Tsuruta & White on mango was determined at different localities in Kenya. At most of the locations and especially at low elevations, B. invadens frequently shared the same fruit with the indigenous fruit fly species Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) but often occurred at higher numbers than C. cosyra. The level of infestation varied with location ranging from 3.0 to 97.2 flies per kg of fruit. There was a significant inverse relationship between numbers of flies per kg of fruit and elevation at which fruit was collected, suggesting that B. invadens is a predominantly lowland pest. On an artificial diet, development of B. invadens immatures lasted 25 days; egg incubation required 1.2 days, larval development 11.1 days and puparia-adult development 12.4 days. About 55% of eggs developed to the adult stage. Life expectancy at pupal eclosion was 75.1 days in females and 86.4 days in males. Average net fecundity and net fertility were 794.6 and 608.1 eggs, respectively, while average daily oviposition was 18.2 eggs. Daily population increase was 11% and mean generation time was 31 days. Results are discussed in relation to the biology and ecology of the insect and in the development of mass rearing and control measures for B. invadens.
"From an economic perspective, they 1) inflict extensive direct damage to hundreds of species of fruits, 2) instigate quarantine restrictions on infested areas, requiring that commercial fruits undergo protective and quarantine treatment prior to export, and 3) provide a breeding reservoir for introduction of invasive fruit fly species into other parts of the world (Vargas et al. 2008). The recent introduction of Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White into Africa and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock into South America, coupled with the continuous threats of introductions elsewhere, has increased the need for effective suppression methods (Malavasi et al. 2000, Ekesi et al. 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait’s effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression.
Journal of Economic Entomology 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/jee/tov046 · 1.51 Impact Factor
"Another study from Tanzania revealed that the highest damage of mango fruits was by B. invadens (Mwatawala et al. 2006). Severe damage of fruits due to B. invadens was reported in Kenya (Ekesi et al. 2006) and Tanzania (Mwatawala et al. 2006, 2009). Many hosts were recorded for B. invadens, which enables the species to attack a wide range of wild and cultivated fruits in Benin and Cameroon (Goergen et al. 2011). "
"And, if not, is B. invadens a distinct species? Due to its economic impact, most studies on B. invadens have an applied focus on host use, seasonality and invasion dynamics (Mwatawala et al., 2006; Ekesi et al., 2007; Rwomushana et al., 2008; Khamis et al., 2009; De Meyer et al., 2010), temporal occurrence and comparative demographic parameters (Vayssières et al., 2005; Salum et al., 2014), interactions with other fruit fly species and their parasitoids (Mohamed et al., 2008; Ekesi et al., 2009; Rwomushana et al., 2009; Van Mele et al., 2009), and the development of market access protocols (Grout et al., 2011; Hallman et al., 2011). These considerable research efforts are based on the assumption that B. invadens is a biologically distinct species from B. dorsalis, a fundamental issue which is receiving increased attention. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, and the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) are highly destructive horticultural pests of global significance. Bactrocera invadens originates from the Indian subcontinent and has recently invaded all of sub-Saharan Africa, while B. dorsalis principally occurs from the Indian subcontinent towards southern China and South-east Asia. High morphological and genetic similarity has cast doubt over whether B. invadens is a distinct species from B. dorsalis. Addressing this issue within an integrative taxonomic framework, we sampled from across the geographic distribution of both taxa and: (i) analysed morphological variation, including those characters considered diagnostic (scutum colour, length of aedeagus, width of postsutural lateral vittae, wing size, and wing shape); (ii) sequenced four loci (ITS1, ITS2, cox1 and nad4) for phylogenetic inference; and (iii) generated a cox1 haplotype network to examine population structure. Molecular analyses included the closely related species, Bactrocera kandiensis Drew & Hancock. Scutum colour varies from red-brown to fully black for individuals from Africa and the Indian subcontinent. All individuals east of the Indian subcontinent are black except for a few red-brown individuals from China. The postsutural lateral vittae width of B. invadens is narrower than B. dorsalis from eastern Asia, but the variation is clinal, with subcontinent B. dorsalis populations intermediate in size. Aedeagus length, wing shape and wing size cannot discriminate between the two taxa. Phylogenetic analyses failed to resolve B. invadens from B. dorsalis, but did resolve B. kandiensis. Bactrocera dorsalis and B. invadens shared cox1 haplotypes, yet the haplotype network pattern does not reflect current taxonomy or patterns in thoracic colour. Some individuals of B. dorsalis/B. invadens possessed haplotypes more closely related to B. kandiensis than to conspecifics, suggestive of mitochondrial introgression between these species. The combined evidence fails to support the delimitation of B. dorsalis and B. invadens as separate biological species. Consequently, existing biological data for B. dorsalis may be applied to the invasive population in Africa. Our recommendation, in line with other recent publications, is that B. invadens be synonymized with B. dorsalis.
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