Trends in laparoscopic splenectomy for massive splenomegaly

Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
Archives of Surgery (Impact Factor: 4.3). 08/2006; 141(8):755-61; discussion 761-2. DOI: 10.1001/archsurg.141.8.755
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT During the past 10 years, expertise with minimally invasive techniques has grown, leading to an increase in successful laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) even in the setting of massive and supramassive spleens.
Retrospective series of patients who underwent splenectomy from November 1, 1995, to August 31, 2005.
Academic tertiary care center.
Adult patients who underwent elective splenectomy as their primary procedure (n = 111).
Demographics, spleen size and weight, conversion from LS to open splenectomy, postoperative length of stay, and perioperative complications and mortality. Massive splenomegaly was defined as the spleen having a craniocaudal length greater than 17 cm or weight more than 600 g, and supramassive splenomegaly was defined as the spleen having a craniocaudal length greater than 22 cm or weight more than 1600 g.
Eighty-five (77%) of the 111 patients underwent LS. Of these 85 patients, 25 (29%) had massive or supramassive spleens. These accounted for 40% of LSs performed in 2004 and 50% in 2005. Despite this increase in giant spleens, the conversion rate for massive or supramassive spleens has declined from 33% prior to 1999 to 0% in 2004 and 2005. Since January 2004 at our institution, all of the massive or supramassive spleens have been removed with a laparoscopic approach. Patients with massive or supramassive spleens who underwent LS had no reoperations for bleeding or deaths and had a significantly shorter postoperative length of stay (mean postoperative length of stay, 3.8 days for patients who underwent LS vs 9.0 days for patients who underwent open splenectomy; P<.001).
Despite conflicting reports regarding the safety of LS for massive splenomegaly, our data indicate that with increasing institutional experience, the laparoscopic approach is safe, shortens the length of stay, and improves mortality.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic splenectomy for massive splenomegaly is still a controversial procedure as compared with open splenectomy. We aimed to compare the feasibility of laparoscopic splenectomy versus open splenectomy for massive splenomegaly from different surgical aspects in children. Methods: The data of children aged <12 years with massive splenomegaly who underwent splenectomy for hematologic disorders were retrospectively reviewed in 2 pediatric surgery centers from June 2004 until July 2012. Results: The study included 32 patients, 12 who underwent laparoscopic splenectomy versus 20 who underwent open splenectomy. The mean ages were 8.5 years and 8 years in the laparoscopic splenectomy group and open splenectomy group, respectively. The mean operative time was 180 minutes for laparoscopic splenectomy and 120 minutes for open splenectomy. The conversion rate was 8%. The mean amount of intraoperative blood loss was 60 mL in the laparoscopic splenectomy group versus 110 mL in the open splenectomy group. Postoperative atelectasis developed in 2 cases in the open splenectomy group (10%) and 1 case in the laparoscopic splenectomy group (8%). Oral feeding postoperatively resumed at a mean of 7.5 hours in the laparoscopic splenectomy group versus 30 hours in the open splenectomy group. The mean hospital stay was 36 hours in the laparoscopic splenectomy group versus 96 hours in the open splenectomy group. Postoperative pain was less in the laparoscopic splenectomy group. Conclusion: Laparoscopic splenectomy for massive splenomegaly in children is safe and feasible. Although the operative time was significantly greater in the laparoscopic splenectomy group, laparoscopic splenectomy was associated with statistically significantly less pain, less blood loss, better recovery, and shorter hospital stay. Laparoscopic splenectomy for pediatric hematologic disorders should be the gold-standard approach regardless of the size of the spleen.
    JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons 07/2014; 18(3). DOI:10.4293/JSLS.2014.00245 · 0.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: LAPAROSCOPIC SPLENECTOMY – SURGICAL TECHNIQUE (Abstract): Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is the second level of skill for a surgeon. The aim of this paper is to present the technique and the tricks for a succesfull splenectomy. There are also presented some datas of history of spleen surgery and surgical anatomy. Indications of laparoscopic splenectomy are the same as in the open technique. The standard operative technique is described. I also present different laparoscopic techniques so as trocars approach, dissection, divided of the spleen vessels by Ligasure or staplers, hand assited technique etc. The postoperative course and follow-up are also described. Conclusion: Laparoscopic splenectomy is a feasible technique. An adequate training in laparoscopic surgery and modern technologies are necessary to perform this operation. LS is the gold standard treatment for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has been shown to offer superior outcomes when compared to open splenectomy (OS). Despite the potential advantages associated with the minimally invasive technique, laparoscopy appears to be underused. We sought to evaluate the nationwide trends in LS. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was queried for both OS and LS procedures performed from 2005 through 2010. Partial splenectomies and those performed for traumatic injury, vascular anomaly, or as part of a pancreatectomy were excluded. The included cases were examined for age of the patient and comorbid conditions. We then evaluated the postoperative complications, overall morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay. A total of 37,006 splenectomies were identified. Of those, OS accounted for 30,108 (81.4%) cases, LS for 4,938 (13.3%), and conversion to open surgery (CS) for 1,960 (5.3%). The overall rate of morbidity was significantly less in the LS group than in the OS group (7.4% vs 10.4%; P < .0001). The LS group had less mortality (1.3% vs 2.5%, P < .05) and a shorter length of stay (5.6 ± 8 days vs 7.5 ± 9 days). Despite the benefits conferred by LS, it appears to be underused in the United States. There has been an improvement in the rate of splenectomies completed laparoscopically when compared to NIS data from the past (8.8% vs 13%; P < .05). The conversion rate is appreciably higher for LS than for other laparoscopic procedures, suggesting that splenectomies require advanced laparoscopic skills and that consideration should be given to referring patients in need of the procedure to appropriately experienced surgeons.
    JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons 10/2014; 18(4). DOI:10.4293/JSLS.2014.00239 · 0.79 Impact Factor