Preparing for microbicide trials in Rwanda: focus group discussions with Rwandan women and men.
ABSTRACT The acceptability and feasibility of microbicide studies and future microbicide use are influenced by existing norms and values regarding sexual and contraceptive behaviour. In preparation for microbicide research in Rwanda, focus group discussions were conducted to assess sexual and contraceptive behaviour, preferences for vaginal lubrication, and hypothetical acceptability of microbicides among Rwandan women and men. Seven focus group discussions were conducted among sexually active married women, unmarried women, sex workers, female students, older women and men living in Kigali, Rwanda, and an additional group of women living in a rural area. The results indicate that condom use is low among Rwandan men and women and that condoms are mainly used by men during commercial sex. Women have limited power to negotiate condom or family planning use. Vaginal hygiene practices are very common and consist primarily of washing with water. Lubrication during sex is highly preferred by both men and women. Hypothetical microbicide acceptability after an explanation of what microbicides are and a demonstration with lubricant jelly was high.
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- "Participants' spontaneous descriptions of their conversations with others were a reminder that trial participation occurs in the context of broader social networks and that participants may be influenced by partners, families and friends. Veldhuijzen et al. (2006) "
ABSTRACT: Microbicides currently in development have the potential to provide new options for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections if proven safe and efficacious. We examined the experiences of healthy male volunteers in a male tolerance study in Victoria, Australia in relation to trial participation and product use. Men (N=36) enrolled in a seven-day, phase 1 clinical safety trial of SPL7013 were interviewed pre and post-use of the gel using a semi-structured interview guide. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, and transcripts were analysed using a framework approach. All but one man completed the trial. The median age was 34 years (range 22-67 years). Most men had little pre-study knowledge of microbicides and almost all participated for altruistic or personal reasons. Men expressed few concerns about product safety during the trial and indicated trust in the information received through the consent process and from study staff. Three men were non-adherent to the request to be abstinent and an additional two did not refrain from masturbation. Most were positive about the gel, although they described it as "sticky" and found that it stuck to clothes, bed sheets and pubic hair. The type of applicator used was unfamiliar to the men, and some found it "clinical" in appearance. Men are willing to participate in male tolerance studies, often for altruistic reasons. However, counseling about ways to maintain abstinence and further research to inform anticipatory guidance regarding the "sticky" quality of gels, may be important.AIDS Care 02/2009; 21(1):125-30. DOI:10.1080/09540120802084958 · 1.60 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: EDF improvements for faults reduction[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper describes a basic EDF scheduler with improvements aiming to reduce temporal faults in soft real time applications. The main objective of the scheduler is to always maintain a valid execution plan for the CPU, where all tasks will meet their deadlines. As task arrivals are not known in advance, scheduling is updated and built online. To make decisions, the scheduler uses the available information, mainly provided by clients when requesting task executions: deadline, importance, WCET of alternative methods, current scheduled tasks, etc. Under overload, less important tasks are removed to make a place for more important ones (graceful degradation). They are kept in a different queue waiting to be re-scheduled if new time conditions make it possible. By simulation experiments, the effects of the different scheduler improvements on faults and result quality are obtained and analysedIndustrial Electronics, 1999. ISIE '99. Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on; 02/1999
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ABSTRACT: HIV and AIDS are significant and growing public health concerns in southern Africa. The majority of countries in the region have national adult HIV prevalence estimates exceeding 10 percent. The increasing availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has potential to mitigate the situation. There is however concern that women may experience more barriers in accessing treatment programs than men. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to describe the gender distribution of patients accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Southern Africa. Data on number of patients on treatment, their mean or median age and gender were obtained and compared across studies and reports. The median or mean age of patients in the studies ranged from 33 to 39 years. While female to male HIV infection prevalence ratios in the southern African countries ranged from 1.2:1 to 1.6:1, female to male ratios on HAART ranged from 0.8: 1 to 2.3: 1. The majority of the reports had female: male ratio in treatment exceeding 1.6. Overall, there were more females on HAART than there were males and this was not solely explained by the higher HIV prevalence among females compared to males. In most Southern African countries, proportionally more females are on HIV antiretroviral treatment than men, even when the higher HIV infection prevalence in females is accounted for. There is need to identify the factors that are facilitating women's accessibility to HIV treatment. As more patients access HAART in the region, it will be important to continue assessing the gender distribution of patients on HAART.BMC Public Health 02/2007; 7(1):63. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-7-63 · 2.32 Impact Factor