Minimum 10 years follow-up surgical results of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients treated with TSRH instrumentation.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, UFUK University, Mithatpasa Cad. 59/2, Kyzylay, Ankara 06420, Turkey.
European Spine Journal (Impact Factor: 2.47). 03/2007; 16(3):381-91. DOI: 10.1007/s00586-006-0147-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Last two decades witnessed great advances in the surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. However, the number of studies evaluating the long-term results of these treatment methods is relatively low. During recent years, besides radiological and clinical studies, questionnaires like SRS-22 assessing subjective functional and mental status and life-quality of patients have gained importance for the evaluation of these results. In this study, surgical outcome and Turkish SRS-22 questionnaire results of 109 late-onset adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients surgically treated with third-generation instrumentation [Texas Scottish Rite Hospital (TSRH) System] and followed for a minimum of 10 years were evaluated. The balance was analyzed clinically and radiologically by the measurement of the lateral trunk shift (LT), shift of head (SH), and shift of stable vertebra (SS). Mean age of the patients was 14.4+/-1.9 and mean follow-up period was 136.9+/-12.7 months. When all the patients were included, the preoperative mean Cobb angle of major curves in the frontal plane was 60.8 degrees +/-17.5 degrees . Major curves that were corrected by 38.7+/-22.1% in the bending radiograms, postoperatively achieved a correction of 64.0+/-15.8%. At the last follow-up visit, 10.3 degrees +/-10.8 degrees of correction loss was recorded in major curves in the frontal plane with 50.5+/-23.1% final correction rate. Also, the mean postoperative and final kyphosis angles and lumbar lordosis angles were 37.7 degrees +/-7.4 degrees , 37.0 degrees +/-8.4 degrees , 37.5 degrees +/-8.7 degrees , and 36.3 degrees +/-8.5 degrees , respectively. A statistically significant correction was obtained at the sagittal plane; mean postoperative changes compared to preoperative values were 7.9 degrees and 12.9 degrees for thoracic and lumbar regions, respectively. On the other hand, normal physiological thoracic and lumbar sagittal contours were achieved in 83.5% and 67.9% of the patients, respectively. Postoperatively, a statistically significant correction was obtained in LT, SH, and SS values (P<0.05). Although, none of the patients had completely balanced curves preoperatively, in 95.4% of the patients the curves were found to be completely balanced or clinically well balanced postoperatively. This rate was maintained at the last follow-up visit. Overall, four patients (3.7%) had implant failure. Early superficial infection was observed in three (2.8%) patients. Radiologically presence of significant consolidation, absence of implant failure, and correction loss, and clinical relief of pain were considered as the proof of a posterior solid fusion mass. About ten (9.2%) patients were considered to have pseudoarthrosis: four patients with implant failure and six patients with correction loss over 15 degrees at the frontal plane. About four (3.7%) patients among the first 20 patients had neurological deficit only wake-up test was used for neurological monitoring of these patients. No neurological deficit was observed in the 89 patients for whom intraoperative neurological monitoring with SSEP and TkMMEP was performed. Overall, average scores of SRS-22 questionnaire for general self-image, function, mental status, pain, and satisfaction from treatment were 3.8+/-0.7, 3.6+/-0.7, 4.0+/-0.8, 3.6+/-0.8, and 4.6+/-0.3, respectively at the last follow-up visit. Results of about 10 years of follow-up these patients treated with TSRH instrumentation suggest that the method is efficient for the correction of frontal and sagittal plane deformities and trunk balance. In addition, it results in a better life-quality.

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    ABSTRACT: Deformation of in vivo-implanted rods could alter the scoliosis sagittal correction. To our knowledge, no previous authors have investigated the influence of implanted-rod deformation on the sagittal deformity correction during scoliosis surgery. To analyze the changes of the implant rod's angle of curvature during surgery and establish its influence on sagittal correction of scoliosis deformity. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative and postoperative implant rod geometry and angle of curvature was conducted. Twenty adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients underwent surgery. Average age at the time of operation was 14 years. The preoperative and postoperative implant rod angle of curvature expressed in degrees was obtained for each patient. Two implant rods were attached to the concave and convex side of the spinal deformity. The preoperative implant rod geometry was measured before surgical implantation. The postoperative implant rod geometry after surgery was measured by computed tomography. The implant rod angle of curvature at the sagittal plane was obtained from the implant rod geometry. The angle of curvature between the implant rod extreme ends was measured before implantation and after surgery. The sagittal curvature between the corresponding spinal levels of healthy adolescents obtained by previous studies was compared with the implant rod angle of curvature to evaluate the sagittal curve correction. The difference between the postoperative implant rod angle of curvature and normal spine sagittal curvature of the corresponding instrumented level was used to evaluate over or under correction of the sagittal deformity. The implant rods at the concave side of deformity of all patients were significantly deformed after surgery. The average degree of rod deformation Δθ at the concave and convex sides was 15.8° and 1.6°, respectively. The average preoperative and postoperative implant rod angle of curvature at the concave side was 33.6° and 17.8°, respectively. The average preoperative and postoperative implant rod angle of curvature at the convex side was 25.5° and 23.9°, respectively. A significant relationship was found between the degree of rod deformation and preoperative implant rod angle of curvature (r=0.60, p<.005). The implant rods at the convex side of all patients did not have significant deformation. The results indicate that the postoperative sagittal outcome could be predicted from the initial rod shape. Changes in implant rod angle of curvature may lead to over- or undercorrection of the sagittal curve. Rod deformation at the concave side suggests that corrective forces acting on that side are greater than the convex side.
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) should be proven to alter the natural history without introducing iatrogenic complications. The risks of surgery should be substantiated by a body of scientific research, which should show a clear superiority of surgery over observation, both in the short term and the long term. The purpose of this review was to conduct a systematic search of the literature to critically evaluate the scientific evidence on the long-term outcomes and complications of surgical intervention for AIS. Our search identified 39 distinct patient populations with a minimum average follow-up of 5 years. No long-term, prospective controlled studies exist to support the hypothesis that surgical intervention for AIS is superior to natural history. Although surgery reliably arrests the progression of deformity, achieves permanent correction, and improves appearance, there is no medical necessity for surgery based on the current body of literature. However, the surgeon must not underestimate the psychological indication that occurs when a patient is no longer able to cope with the deformity.
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