The emergence and diffusion of DNAMicroarray technology

Jenkins Collaboratory for New Technologies in Society, Duke University, John Hope Franklin Center, 2204 Erwin Road, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0402, USA.
Journal of Biomedical Discovery and Collaboration 02/2006; 1(11):11. DOI: 10.1186/1747-5333-1-11
Source: PubMed


The network model of innovation widely adopted among researchers in the economics of science and technology posits relatively porous boundaries between firms and academic research programs and a bi-directional flow of inventions, personnel, and tacit knowledge between sites of university and industry innovation. Moreover, the model suggests that these bi-directional flows should be considered as mutual stimulation of research and invention in both industry and academe, operating as a positive feedback loop. One side of this bi-directional flow – namely; the flow of inventions into industry through the licensing of university-based technologies – has been well studied; but the reverse phenomenon of the stimulation of university research through the absorption of new directions emanating from industry has yet to be investigated in much detail. We discuss the role of federal funding of academic research in the microarray field, and the multiple pathways through which federally supported development of commercial microarray technologies have transformed core academic research fields.
Our study confirms the picture put forward by several scholars that the open character of networked economies is what makes them truly innovative. In an open system innovations emerge from the network. The emergence and diffusion of microarray technologies we have traced here provides an excellent example of an open system of innovation in action. Whether they originated in a startup company environment that operated like a think-tank, such as Affymax, the research labs of a large firm, such as Agilent, or within a research university, the inventors we have followed drew heavily on knowledge resources from all parts of the network in bringing microarray platforms to light.
Federal funding for high-tech startups and new industrial development was important at several phases in the early history of microarrays, and federal funding of academic researchers using microarrays was fundamental to transforming the research agendas of several fields within academe. The typical story told about the role of federal funding emphasizes the spillovers from federally funded academic research to industry. Our study shows that the knowledge spillovers worked both ways, with federal funding of non-university research providing the impetus for reshaping the research agendas of several academic fields.

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Available from: Eric Giannella, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "Since the successful launch of Affymetrix GeneChip® in 1994, DNA microarray technology has revolutionized disease diagnosis, drug discovery and toxicological research [1] [2] [3]. A microarray contains thousands of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface, where each spot represents a specific gene. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chemically modified eggshell membranes (ESM) have been explored as potentially novel platforms for immobi-lization of oligonucleotides and subsequent detection of target DNA. The fibrous network of the native ESM as well those functionalized with acetic acid or n-butyl acetate has been examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The formation of surface functional moieties has been confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). DNA molecules, with an end terminal − NH 2 group (at 5′ end) have been immobilized on the chemically modified ESM surface. The effect of surface modification on the DNA immobiliza-tion efficiency has been investigated using fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The above studies concurrently suggest that functionalization of ESM with n-butyl acetate causes a better homogene-ity of the DNA probes on the membrane surface. On-chip hybridization of the target DNA with the surface bound capture probes has been performed on the functionalized membranes. It is observed that n-butyl acetate modification of ESM pushes the limit of detection (LOD) of the DNA sensors by at least an order of magnitude compared to the other modification method.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 02/2016; 59. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2015.10.034 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Nonetheless, as Rosenberg (2000) points out, university research and training is broadly responsive to the needs of industry. And there are instances in which industry advances can trigger a series of complementary inventions by universities that absorb the new technology as a research tool or as an engineering system meriting its own study (Rosenberg, 1982; Lenoir and Giannella, 2006). The role of university science in private sector R&D is multi-faceted. "
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    • "Michael Pirrung (a chemist) and Leighton Read came up with the idea to apply a production method used in the semiconductor industry in near-by Silicon Valley to the in situ peptide synthesis: a photolithographic , or light-directed technique. Fabian Pease, a professor at Stanford specializing in the development of electronic chips, joined the team (Lenoir & Giannella, 2006). Stephen Fodor came to Affymax in 1989. "
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