Characterization of biofilm-forming abilities of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104 on hydrophobic abiotic surfaces.
ABSTRACT Salmonella typhimurium DT104 strain has emerged as a global human and veterinary public health concern because of its antibiotic resistance and extensive host range. Although it is thought to be more virulent, to date, factors relevant to its virulence have not been fully elucidated. Thus, understanding how this strain forms biofilms on hydrophobic surfaces will add to current knowledge on its possible virulence mechanism.
Biofilm-forming abilities of clinical isolates of S. typhimurium DT104 from human and animal sources on hydrophobic inanimate surfaces were assessed by absorbance at 600 nm of crystal violet-bound cells recovered from 96-well tissue culture plates after growth in a nutrient-rich growth medium and various adjusted media; and scanning electron microscopy based on standard procedures.
In the nutrient-rich growth medium, Luria-Bertani (LB), biofilms were formed in small quantities, preferentially on polystyrene (p<0.05), and followed different time courses. Significantly lower amounts of biofilms were formed on polystyrene when a nutrient-deficient growth medium (adherence test medium) was used. Inclusion of D-(+)-mannose in LB at a concentration of 100 mM significantly (p<0.05) inhibited biofilm formation on polystyrene. D-(+)-glucose relatively enhanced biofilm formation but D-(-)-mannitol only insignificantly influenced the process. The action of mannose on polyvinly chloride (PVC) was insignificant, suggesting that its action may be surface-dependent. Additionally, glucose significantly reduced biofilm growths of 2 of the isolates and only that of the PVC-loving strain T980021 on polystyrene and PVC, respectively. At the concentration tested, unlike xylose, both D-mannose and D-glucose significantly (p<0.05) inhibited bacterial growth, providing a possible mechanism for their inhibitory action on biofilm formation by S. typhimurium. While stress of starvation resulted in significant reduction in biofilm formation on polystyrene in all but the PVC-loving strain T980021, high osmolarity had little effect on the quantity of biofilm formed on polystyrene. The extent of primary attachment to polystyrene as well as their capacity to form biofilm did not correlate with their cell surface hydrophobicity and exopolysaccharide production.
D-(+)-mannose inhibits biofilm formation by S. typhimurium DT104 on polystyrene but not on PVC. There was also a general lack of correlation between the ability of S. typhimurium DT104 to form biofilm and its physicochemical surface characteristics.
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ABSTRACT: Scorpine, a small cationic peptide from the venom of Pandinus imperator, which has been shown to have anti-bacterial and anti-plasmodial activities, has potential important applications in the pharmaceutical industries. However, the isolation of scorpine from natural sources is inefficient and time-consuming. Here, we first report the expression and purification of recombinant scorpine in Escherichia coli, using small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion partner. The fusion protein was expressed in soluble form in E. coli, and expression was verified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis. The fusion protein was purified to 90% purity by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni2+-NTA) resin chromatography. After the SUMO-scorpine fusion protein was cleaved by the SUMO protease, the cleaved sample was reapplied to a Ni2+-NTA column. Tricine/SDS-PAGE gel results indicated that Scorpine had been purified successfully to more than 95% purity. The recombinantly expressed Scorpine showed anti-bacterial activity against two standard bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, and clinically isolated bacteria including S. aureus S, S. aureus R, A. baumannii S, and A. baumannii R. It also produced 100% reduction in Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in vitro. Thus, the expression strategy presented in this study allowed convenient high yield and easy purification of recombinant Scorpine for pharmaceutical applications in the future.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103456. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103456 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bifidobacteria are natural inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. In full-term newborns, these bacteria are acquired from the mother during delivery and rapidly become the predominant organisms in the intestinal microbiota. Bifidobacteria contribute to the establishment of healthy intestinal ecology and can confer health benefits to their host. Consequently, there is growing interest in bifidobacteria, and various strains are currently used as probiotic components in functional food products. However, the probiotic effects have been reported to be strain-specific. There is thus a need to better understand the determinants of the observed benefits provided by these probiotics. Our objective was to compare three human B. longum isolates with the sequenced model strain B. longum NCC2705 at the chromosome and proteome levels. Pulsed field electrophoresis genotyping revealed genetic heterogeneity with low intraspecies strain relatedness among the four strains tested. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we analyzed qualitative differences in the cytosolic protein patterns. There were 45 spots that were present in some strains and absent in others. Spots were excised from the gels and subjected to peptide mass fingerprint analysis for identification. The 45 spots represented 37 proteins, most of which were involved in carbohydrate metabolism and cell wall or cell membrane synthesis. Notably, the protein patterns were correlated with differences in cell membrane properties like surface hydrophobicity and cell agglutination. These results showed that proteomic analysis can be valuable for investigating differences in bifidobacterial species and may provide a better understanding of the diversity of bifidobacteria and their potential use as probiotics.BMC Microbiology 01/2010; 10:29. DOI:10.1186/1471-2180-10-29 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rhizobium leguminosarum is a soil bacterium with the ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. Soil-dwelling, free-living R. leguminosarum often encounters desiccation stress, which impacts its survival within the soil. The mechanisms by which soil bacteria resist the effects of desiccation stress have been described. However, the role of the cell envelope in the desiccation tolerance mechanisms of rhizobia is relatively uncharacterized. Using a transposon mutagenesis approach, a mutant of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae was isolated that was highly sensitive to desiccation. The mutation is located in the ATP-binding protein of an uncharacterized ATP-binding cassette transporter operon (RL2975-RL2977). Exopolysaccharide accumulation was significantly lower in the mutant and the decrease in desiccation tolerance was attributed to the decreased accumulation of exopolysaccharide. In addition to desiccation sensitivity, the mutant was severely impaired in biofilm formation, an important adaptation used by soil bacteria for survival. This work has identified a novel transporter required for physiological traits that are important for the survival of R. leguminosarum in the rhizosphere environment.FEMS Microbiology Ecology 03/2010; 71(3):327-40. DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00824.x · 3.88 Impact Factor