Salmonella typhimurium DT104 strain has emerged as a global human and veterinary public health concern because of its antibiotic resistance and extensive host range. Although it is thought to be more virulent, to date, factors relevant to its virulence have not been fully elucidated. Thus, understanding how this strain forms biofilms on hydrophobic surfaces will add to current knowledge on its possible virulence mechanism.
Biofilm-forming abilities of clinical isolates of S. typhimurium DT104 from human and animal sources on hydrophobic inanimate surfaces were assessed by absorbance at 600 nm of crystal violet-bound cells recovered from 96-well tissue culture plates after growth in a nutrient-rich growth medium and various adjusted media; and scanning electron microscopy based on standard procedures.
In the nutrient-rich growth medium, Luria-Bertani (LB), biofilms were formed in small quantities, preferentially on polystyrene (p<0.05), and followed different time courses. Significantly lower amounts of biofilms were formed on polystyrene when a nutrient-deficient growth medium (adherence test medium) was used. Inclusion of D-(+)-mannose in LB at a concentration of 100 mM significantly (p<0.05) inhibited biofilm formation on polystyrene. D-(+)-glucose relatively enhanced biofilm formation but D-(-)-mannitol only insignificantly influenced the process. The action of mannose on polyvinly chloride (PVC) was insignificant, suggesting that its action may be surface-dependent. Additionally, glucose significantly reduced biofilm growths of 2 of the isolates and only that of the PVC-loving strain T980021 on polystyrene and PVC, respectively. At the concentration tested, unlike xylose, both D-mannose and D-glucose significantly (p<0.05) inhibited bacterial growth, providing a possible mechanism for their inhibitory action on biofilm formation by S. typhimurium. While stress of starvation resulted in significant reduction in biofilm formation on polystyrene in all but the PVC-loving strain T980021, high osmolarity had little effect on the quantity of biofilm formed on polystyrene. The extent of primary attachment to polystyrene as well as their capacity to form biofilm did not correlate with their cell surface hydrophobicity and exopolysaccharide production.
D-(+)-mannose inhibits biofilm formation by S. typhimurium DT104 on polystyrene but not on PVC. There was also a general lack of correlation between the ability of S. typhimurium DT104 to form biofilm and its physicochemical surface characteristics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bifidobacteria are natural inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. In full-term newborns, these bacteria are acquired from the mother during delivery and rapidly become the predominant organisms in the intestinal microbiota. Bifidobacteria contribute to the establishment of healthy intestinal ecology and can confer health benefits to their host. Consequently, there is growing interest in bifidobacteria, and various strains are currently used as probiotic components in functional food products. However, the probiotic effects have been reported to be strain-specific. There is thus a need to better understand the determinants of the observed benefits provided by these probiotics. Our objective was to compare three human B. longum isolates with the sequenced model strain B. longum NCC2705 at the chromosome and proteome levels.
Pulsed field electrophoresis genotyping revealed genetic heterogeneity with low intraspecies strain relatedness among the four strains tested. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we analyzed qualitative differences in the cytosolic protein patterns. There were 45 spots that were present in some strains and absent in others. Spots were excised from the gels and subjected to peptide mass fingerprint analysis for identification. The 45 spots represented 37 proteins, most of which were involved in carbohydrate metabolism and cell wall or cell membrane synthesis. Notably, the protein patterns were correlated with differences in cell membrane properties like surface hydrophobicity and cell agglutination.
These results showed that proteomic analysis can be valuable for investigating differences in bifidobacterial species and may provide a better understanding of the diversity of bifidobacteria and their potential use as probiotics.
"Comparison of the results of biofilm formation and those of EPS production shows that there was a correlation between them. Ngwai et al. (2006) observed higher values of EPS in their Salm. Typhimurium DT104 strains. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the biofilm formation of 75 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salm. Typhimurium) human clinical isolates and the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime on biofilm formation and exopolysaccharides (EPS) production.
Quantification of biofilm formation and EPS production were carried out using a modified microtitre plate assay and spectrophotometric method, respectively. The results indicate that 38 isolates (50.7%), which are predominantly of DT104 phage type, presented as the strong biofilm producers in vitro on plastic surface. When strains with the highest biofilm-forming capacity were grown in the presence of sub-MICs of gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, the inhibition of biofilm formation and EPS production was observed. In contrast, cefotaxime at 1/2 MIC (0.039 microg ml(-1)) was able to significantly induce the production of biofilm as well as EPS in three isolates with nontypable and DT104 phage type, respectively.
These results clearly indicate that all the three antibiotics tested are able to interfere with biofilm formation and EPS production by Salm. Typhimurium isolates.
The current study demonstrated that cefotaxime at sub-MIC can be beneficial for the behaviour of pathogen Salm. Typhimurium in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Institute of Food Technologists has issued this Scientific Status Summary to provide readers with a tutorial on biofilms, their purposeful mechanism of interaction (quorum sensing), and recent findings on how to inhibit their formation.
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