Increased local matrix metalloproteinase-8 expression in the periodontal connective tissues of smokers with periodontal disease.
ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 has been associated with the progression of periodontitis, a common inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the teeth, and with other degradative diseases. Tobacco smokers are at high risk of developing periodontitis that may progress more rapidly and respond poorly to treatment. Therefore, MMP-8 expression was determined by immunofluorescence staining in 60 random, computer-selected fields in the excised periodontal tissues of smokers and non-smokers, balanced for age, gender, and periodontal status. Immunofluorescence intensity, representing MMP-8 expression, in the periodontal tissues of smokers (30 fields from 6 subjects, mean 1154+/-124 units) was significantly higher than that in the periodontal tissues of non-smokers (30 fields from 6 subjects, mean 817+/-60 units; p < 0.05). Serum MMP-8 concentrations were measured by ELISA and compared in a larger group of smokers (n = 20) and age- and gender-balanced non-smokers (n = 20). Systemic MMP-8 concentrations in smokers and non-smokers were not significantly different (p > 0.05). A local tobacco-related increase in MMP-8 burden may contribute to periodontal disease progression in tobacco smokers. This finding may also have relevance to other tobacco-induced inflammatory diseases, such as vascular and pulmonary diseases.
Article: Expression of metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in inflamed gingival biopsies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are known to be involved in the periodontal disease process. Results of in vivo MMPs and TIMPs gene expressions in the gingiva, though, are still controversial. In the present study, we compared the gene expression of MMP-1, -2, -9, -13 and TIMP-1, -2 in healthy and inflamed gingiva. 38 gingival samples were collected from gingivitis (n = 10), advanced chronic periodontitis (n = 10), generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 8) and periodontally healthy individuals (n = 10). Total RNA isolated from those samples was subjected to reverse transcription followed by amplification by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Products were visualized in agarose gels and quantified by optical densitometry. Samples were also processed for gelatin zymography and Western blotting for MMP-2 and MMP-9 in order to assess for post-transcriptional MMP regulation at the protein level. The frequencies and levels of transcripts encoding MMPs and TIMPs were found to be not significantly different among groups (p > 0.05, Fisher's Exact and Kruskall-Wallis tests). There is a trend towards higher MMP-2 and -9 gelatinase activities in the inflamed samples, although not statistically significant. In contrast, zymography and Western blotting studies show that MMP-2 is virtually absent in the chronic periodontitis group. These results could reflect a complex regulation of MMPs and TIMPs' gene expression in the course of gingival inflammation. They also reveal a great biological diversity even among individuals with similar periodontal status.Journal of Periodontal Research 06/2008; 43(5):570-7. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many epidemiological evidences have proven the association between smoking and periodontal disease. The causality can be further established by linking findings of traditional epidemiological studies with the developments in molecular techniques that occurred in the last decade. The present article reviews recent studies that address the effect of smoking on molecular and genetic factors in periodontal disease. Most findings support the fact that tobacco smoking modulates destruction of the periodontium through different pathways: microcirculatory and host immune systems, connective tissue, and bone metabolism. Although smokers experience an increased burden of inflammatory responses to microbial challenges compared to non-smokers, understanding the association between smoking and periodontal diseases involves substantial problems with respect to accuracy of measurements, and particularly, sampling of many subjects. It remains unclear whether genetic susceptibility to periodontal disease is influenced by exposure to smoking or the effect of smoking on periodontal disease is influenced by genetic susceptibility. Employment of molecular techniques may play a key role in further elucidation of mechanisms linking smoking and periodontal destruction, the direct relationship as environmental factors and indirect relationship through genetic factors.Tobacco Induced Diseases 02/2010; 8:4.
Article: Review of matrix metalloproteinases' effect on the hybrid dentin bond layer stability and chlorhexidine clinical use to prevent bond failure.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review describes the relationship between dentin collagen hybrid bond layer degradation and the Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) after their release by acid etch and rinse adhesives and self etching bonding adhesives that can reduce the bond stability over time. MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9 are indicated as the active proteases that breakdown the collagen fibrils in the hybrid bond layer. Phosphoric acid in the acid etch and rinse bonding process and acid primers in the self etch process are implicated in the release of these proteases and their activation by several non-collagen proteins also released from dentin by the etching. MMPs are released in saliva by salivary glands, by cells in the gingival crevices to crevicular fluid and by pulpal odontoblasts cells to the dentinal fluids. These sources may affect the hybrid layer also. Evidence of the bond strength deterioration over time and the ability of Chlorhexidine to prevent bond deterioration by inhibiting MMP action are discussed. Dentin Bonding procedure utilizing Chlorhexidine for different application times and concentrations are being developed. The application of 2% Chlorhexidine to the phosphoric acid etch surface after rinsing off the acid is the only procedure that has been clinically tested for a longer period of time and shown to prevent bond strength degradation so far. The adoption of this procedure is recommended as means of improving bond stability at this time.The Open Dentistry Journal 01/2010; 4:147-52.