[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel procedure for in vivo imaging of the oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in implanted tumors is reported. The procedure uses electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) of oxygen-sensing nanoprobes embedded in the tumor cells. Unlike existing methods of pO2 quantification, wherein the probes are physically inserted at the time of measurement, the new approach uses cells that are preinternalized (labeled) with the oxygen-sensing probes, which become permanently embedded in the developed tumor. Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) cells, internalized with nanoprobes of lithium octa-n-butoxy-naphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO), were allowed to grow as a solid tumor. In vivo imaging of the growing tumor showed a heterogeneous distribution of the spin probe, as well as oxygenation in the tumor volume. The pO2 images obtained after the tumors were exposed to a single dose of 30-Gy X-radiation showed marked redistribution as well as an overall increase in tissue oxygenation, with a maximum increase 6 hr after irradiation. However, larger tumors with a poorly perfused core showed no significant changes in oxygenation. In summary, the use of in vivo EPR technology with embedded oxygen-sensitive nanoprobes enabled noninvasive visualization of dynamic changes in the intracellular pO2 of growing and irradiated tumors.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 05/2007; 57(5):950-9. DOI:10.1002/mrm.21212 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the temporal response of particulate-based EPR oximetry probes to changes in partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)). In order to accurately evaluate the oxygen-response time, we developed a method for rapid modulation of pO(2) in a chamber containing the probe using an oscillator-driven speaker-diaphragm setup. The apparatus was capable of producing sinusoidal changes in pO(2) at frequencies up to 300 Hz or more. The pressure-modulation setup was used to evaluate the temporal response of some of the most commonly used phthalocyanine-based particulate probes. For validation, the time-response of the probes was compared to that of a high sensitivity pressure sensor. The results revealed that some particulate probes could respond to changes in pO(2) with a temporal response of 3.3 ms (300 Hz). The observations were interpreted in the light of their crystalline packing in favor of oxygen diffusion. The results of the present study should enable the selection of probes for oximetry applications requiring high temporal resolution.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance 08/2008; 193(1):127-32. DOI:10.1016/j.jmr.2008.04.034 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis, structural framework, magnetic and oxygen-sensing properties of a lithium naphthalocyanine (LiNc) radical probe are presented. LiNc was synthesized in the form of a microcrystalline powder using a chemical method and characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, and mass spectrometry. X-Ray powder diffraction studies revealed a structural framework that possesses long, hollow channels running parallel to the packing direction. The channels measured approximately 5.0 × 5.4 Å(2) in the two-dimensional plane perpendicular to the length of the channel, enabling diffusion of oxygen molecules (2.9 × 3.9 Å(2)) through the channel. The powdered LiNc exhibited a single, sharp EPR line under anoxic conditions, with a peak-to-peak linewidth of 630 mG at room temperature. The linewidth was sensitive to surrounding molecular oxygen, showing a linear increase in pO(2) with an oxygen sensitivity of 31.2 mG per mmHg. The LiNc microcrystals can be further prepared as nano-sized crystals without the loss of its high oxygen-sensing properties. The thermal variation of the magnetic properties of LiNc, such as the EPR linewidth, EPR intensity and magnetic susceptibility revealed the existence of two different temperature regimes of magnetic coupling and hence differing columnar packing, both being one-dimensional antiferromagnetic chains but with differing magnitudes of exchange coupling constants. At a temperature of ∼50 K, LiNc crystals undergo a reversible phase transition. The high degree of oxygen-sensitivity of micro- and nano-sized crystals of LiNc, combined with excellent stability, should enable precise and accurate measurements of oxygen concentration in biological systems using EPR spectroscopy.
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